Monday, September 30, 2019

Organizational Forms Essay

There are several types of organizational forms that a business can choose from. Each form presents pros and cons that may or may not be suitable for a particular business. This report will review characteristics such as: liability, income taxes, longevity or continuity, control, profit retention, location, convenience and burden for each business form and how they differentiate from the different types of organization forms. Sole proprietorship A sole proprietorship is the most common business form. A business is a sole proprietorship if it is not incorporated, meaning that a separate legal entity is not created for it. An advantage of forming a sole proprietorship is that it is the easiest and least expensive business form. a.Liability: A sole proprietorship does not excuse the owner from personal liability. If the business fails, the owner is responsible to the creditors and may lose personal assets. b.Income Taxes: The profits and losses of the business go through the owners’ personal tax return. This can positively or negatively affect the owner depending on what the profit and losses of the business are and what other sources of income the owner may have. c.Longevity or continuity: If the owner dies the company cannot continue on. If the owner decides to leave the company, then the company will also cease to exist. d.Control: In a sole proprietorship the owner has full control of the business. e.Profit retention: The owner receives all profits in a sole proprietorship. f.Location: When a business is a sole proprietorship the owner can move the business to any location. The only fee may be if changing states or county and the business is operating under a trade name, then the owner will have to pay the relatively small fee to operate as a DBA (â€Å"Doing Business As†). g.Convenience or burden: There are not any extra burdens when operating as a sole proprietorship. The owner does not have to meet any special reporting or regulatory requirements. There are not any special tax requirements or restrictions. The business profit and losses are filed with the owner’s regular tax return. General partnership A general partnership is between two or more owners of a business that is not incorporated. a.Liability: Each partner is held personally liable for the debts of the business regard less of fault. b.Income Taxes: Taxes are reported on each partner’s personal income tax return, so any profits made by the company are treated separately from the individuals’ income, but included. c.Longevity or continuity of the organization: A general partnership lacks continuity. If a partner leaves and his or her shares cannot be bought by the remaining partner, then the business must close. If a partner dies, their heir can be paid for the value of their share of partnership, but cannot continue with business. d.Control: In a partnership control is equal between all the partners. This can be difficult when a company has many partners or partners that don’t know each other. If a change is made without consulting with the other partners that can cause friction between the partners, so it may be best to include all partners in all decisions. e.Profit Retention: Profit is distributed equally between all partners and so is any loss. f.Location: A general partnership is fairly easy to setup and move. There are not any special forms that need to be filed with the state or county to form a general partnership. There only has to be at least two people to make up the partnership. g.Convenience or burden: Since there are not any special filings that need to be done for a general partnership, it is very convenient. Limited Partnership A limited partnership is partnership that does not hold the partners personally liable for the business debts. a.Liability: Limited partners are not held personally liable for the business debts. b.Income Taxes: All profits and losses are passed through each partners’ individual income tax return. The company does not pay taxes. c.Longevity or Continuity: Limited partners can freely enter and leave the company. The company can continue if a limited partner leaves. d.Control: In a limited partnership there are limited partners and general partners. The general partners manage the partnership. e.Profit Retention: Profits are distributed to the partners based on their contribution and pass through to the partners, who in turn report the profits on their individual tax return and pay taxes at their individual rate. f.Location: When a LLP is formed or if it moves, then it must comply with state filing requirements. A LLP must file a Certificate of Limited Partnership with the appropriate state agency. g.Convenience or burden: A LLP can be convenient because it attract capital easily, it offers limited liability to partners, easy transferability of partnership, and pass-through taxation. C-corporation A C- corporation or a â€Å"privately held corporation† is a company whose stock is not publicly traded. a.Liability: A business owner is not personally liable for the company debts and is protected from lawsuits and judgments against the business. b.Income Taxes: C-corporations are double taxed. The IRS taxes the company profits and tax any dividends paid to shareholders. c.Longevity or Continuity: Even if the owner leaves or dies, the C-corporation being a separate entity can continue to go on. d.Control: Management is shared between the shareholders. e.Profit Retention: Profits are usually kept within the company and not distributed to shareholders. f.Location: A C-corporation must follow state filing requirements in each state that it wishes to setup in. This can be very costly. g.Convenience or burden: An advantage of a C-Corporation is that it provides the best protection for the owner against the company debts. A disadvantage is that it can be costly to establish. S-corporation S-corporations are a separate entity from the owner. It offers the owner limited liability, but the tax structure benefit of a partnership. a.Liability: The owner an S-corporation is not held personally liable for any debts or judgments incurred by the company. b.Income Taxes: In an S-corporation, the profits and losses of the company are passed through to the owners and shareholders and reported on their personal income tax returns and taxed at their individual rates. The company itself is not taxed. c.Longevity or continuity: Like a C-corporation an S-corporation can continue on, if the owner leaves or dies. d.Control: A board of directors manages the company through officers. e.Profit Retention: Generally in an S-corporation the profits are passed on to the shareholders. f.Location: An S-corporation must follow state filing requirements in any state that it wishes to setup in. g.Convenience or burden: An S-corporation can be convenient, because it provides the owner and shareholders protection from company debt and they save on paying taxes on profit, but it can be costly in setting up. Limited Liability Company A Limited Liability Company is similar to an S-corporation in that it offers the limited liability of a corporation, but the tax structure benefit of a partnership. a.Liability: Owners and shareholders are protected from personal liability for the business debts and judgments. b.Income Taxes: Profits and losses are passed through to the shareholders and filed on their individual income tax returns. c.Longevity and continuity: An LLC can continue if a member leaves, but the LLC must pay the member the value of their interest. d.Control: An LLC is managed by its’ members. e.Profit Retention: Profits are passed on to the members. f.Location: A LLC must follow state filing requirements for any state it wishes to setup in. g.Convenience or burden: LLC offer a very flexible structure. It also has no limitations on the number and kind of owners. It can be very expensive to form and because it is so new, it can be more complex. Bibliography Book: Beatty, J. & Samuelson, S. (2007). Business Law and the Legal Environment: Standard Edition, 4e. Mason, OH: Rob Dewey Web site: Perez, W. (2009). Protect Your Business Profits by Incorporating. About.com. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://taxes.about.com/od/taxplanning/a/incorporating.htm Corey Pierce, J. (2002-2004). Business Startup: Where to Begin & How to Grow. Businessfinance.com. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://www.businessfinance.com/books/StartABusiness/StartABusinessWorkbookTOC.htm PART B interoffice memorandum to:Owner subject: Business organization date:8/10/2013 There are many different types of business forms. After reviewing them all, I have come to the conclusion that an S corporation will be the most beneficial to you company. An S-corporation is a separate legal entity and protects the owner and shareholders from personal liability and offers benefits with its tax structure. This memo will address issues that are important to you and the advantages provided to you by forming an S-corporation. You expressed concern regarding your personal liability and whether or not if the company was to be sued- you did not want to possibly lose all of your personal assets. With an S-corporation you are protected from losing your personal assets if a company is sued for negligence by an employee or subcontractor. If the company were to default on debts, your personal assets are protected from creditors. Funding will also be fairly easy to obtain with an S-corporation. With an S-corporation, you will be able to sell stock in the company to increase capital assets to help with you expanding. You will be able to sell as much or as little of your companies’ stock as you wish, once a stock value is determined. An advantage to selling you company’s stock beside the increase in capital is that you are also able to retain control of the company when issuing stock. The profit that your company earns will be distributed to the shareholders, but with an S-corporation, shareholders are only allocated the profit and losses equal to the amount of their investment. The profits and losses are passed through to each shareholder and filed on their individual income tax returns. The company itself is not taxed. Also, with an S-corporation, if you were to pass away, the company would have continuity. The company would not have to dissolve and you. The stock that you own in the company can be transferred to an heir or transferred by the sale of all or a portion of the stock. Based on these findings, I recommend you to form an S-corporation for your company.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Lesson Plan in Science Elementary Essay

Cotabato derives its name from the Maguindanao kuta wato, meaning â€Å"stone fort†, referring to the stone fort which served as the seat of the great Sultan Kudarat in what is now Cotabato City. Cotabato (also North Cotabato; Filipino:Hilagang Kotabato), is a landlocked provinceof the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao. Its capital isKidapawan City and borders Lanao del Sur and Bukidnon to the north, Davao del Norteand Davao City to the east, Davao del Sur and Sultan Kudarat to the southeast, andMaguindanao to the south and west. Cotabato is subdivided into 17 municipalities and 2 cities.[1] ————————————————- Geography The Province of North Cotabato lies on the eastern part of Region XII and is strategically located in the central part of Mindanao. It is bounded on the north by the provinces ofLanao del Sur and Bukidnon, on the east by Davao City and Davao del Norte, on the west by Maguindanao and on the southeast by Sultan Kudarat and Davao del Sur. North Cotabato is strategically linked to the major â€Å"Arterial Road System† that traverses and connects the province to Davao City – SOCCSKSARGEN – Cotabato Corridor. The Cotabato via Kabacan – Maramag – Kibawe, Bukidnon Sayre Highway meanwhile serves as its link to the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan City Corridor. North Cotabato, with an area of 656,590 hectares representing 45.06% of the whole regional area, stretches west from Mt. Apo, which separates it from Davao, to the Piapayungan Range on its boundary with Lanao. In the midst of these uplands is the basin of the Pulangi or Rio Grande de Mindanao, the second longest in the Philippines at 300 km, which rises in Bukidnon and flows south to Maguindanao and Illana Bay. The province’s fertile plains are traversed by tributaries of this great river. Typhoons do not pass through North Cotabato and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Sarangani Map of the Philippines with Sarangani highlighted| Sarangani is a province of the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region. Its capital is Alabel. With a 230 kilometres (140 mi) coastline along the Sarangani Bay andCelebes Sea, the province is at the southernmost tip of Mindanao Island, and bordersSouth Cotabato to the north and Davao del Sur to the east. Sarangani is part of the South Cotabato-Sultan Kudarat-Sarangani-Gen. Santos City (SOCCSKSARGEN) development cluster, and is linked by paved roads to the international airport and harbor of Gen. Santos City. The province is divided into two parts, separated by the Sarangani Bay and General Santos City, and it used to be part of South Cotabato until it was made an independent province in 1992.[1] Sultan Kudarat sultan Kudarat (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Sultan Kudarat), is a province of thePhilippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao. Its capital is Isulan and borders Maguindanao and Cotabato to the north, South Cotabato and Sarangani to the south, and Davao del Sur to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the west. Sultan Kudarat is subdivided into 11 municipalities and 1 city. Three of the municipalities (Kalamansig, Lebak, and Palimbang) are coastal towns, while the rest of the province are located inland. Tacurong City is the smallest unit in the province in terms of land area, but it is the most urbanized, and is considered to be the province’s commercial center. Other growth centers are Lebak and Isulan, the latter being the provincial capital.Bagumbayan is the largest town in terms of land area. The 11 municipalities and Tacurong City are further subdivided into 249 barangays. Sultan Kudarat is located on the southwestern part of the island of Mindanao. It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Maguindanao and Cotabato; on the south bySouth Cotabato; on the east by Davao del Sur; and on the west by the Celebes Sea. The province’s total land area is 4783.1898 square kilometres. The three coastal towns on the province’s western side are lined with mountain ranges that wall the central part of the province from the sea. There are also mountains on the eastern side, leaving flat land in between. The climate is characterized by a short dry season lasting from one to three months. Unlike most other provinces in the country, Sultan Kudarat is generally free fromtyphoons and rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year. Sultan Kudarat was once a part of the former empire province of Cotabato. It was created as a separate province along with Maguindanao and North Cotabato on November 22, 1973 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 341 signed by former Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos. The purpose of dividing Cotabato into three (3) smaller provinces is clearly stated in Presidential Decree No. 341, which pertinently provided, to wit: â€Å"Whereas, the province of Cotabato is one of the largest and richest provinces of the Philippines; Whereas, the potentials of the province have not been fully developed due to the magnitude of the task of provincial development and troubles that have long plagued the area; Whereas, the many conflicting political, social and economic interests that have limited the progress of the province must be resolved in order to promote the stability and accelerate the development of Cotabato; and Whereas, there is a need for dividing the present province into smaller units which can be more effectively administered and developed†. The name Sultan Kudarat given to the province was derived from a Muslim ruler, the late Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat who begun to assert his leadership in the year 1619 and reigned the Sultanate of Maguindanao from January 1625 to 1671 AD. He was a virtuous leader who embodied the idea of basic unity, oneness and freedom among the diverse people scattered throughout its Sultanate. For this reason, he was considered as one of the National heroes of our country and for his honour this province was named after him. As of the 2000 census, Sultan Kudarat has a total population of 586,505. The province formerly had a Muslim majority, but Christianmigrants now outnumber Muslims and highlanders. The Ilonggos constitute the majority of the Christian population, with their native language which is Hiligaynon and Kinaray-a as the province’s dominant language. Ilocano and Cebuano are also spoken in some municipalities. Maguindanao is the local language of the Muslim population. Ilocanos and Ilonggos are the only ethno-linguistic dwellers of the province who are not natives of Mindanao since Cebuanos inhabited the island around 17th to 18th century. Classified as a highly-urbanized city, General Santos is the 15th most populous city in the country with 538,086 inhabitants as per census data of 2010.[1] The city is bounded by municipalities of Sarangani Provincenamely Alabel in the east, and Maasim in the south. General Santos is likewise bounded by the South Cotabato municipality of Polomolok and Sarangani Provincemunicipality of Malungon in the north, and the municipality of T’boli in the west. General Santos City is part of the SOCCSKSARGEN region. Notable people * Gerald Anderson, Pinoy Big Brother Teen Edition 3rd Big Placer * Ethel Booba, Comedian * Melai Cantiveros, Pinoy Big Brother Double-Up (Season 3) Big Winner/ Comedian/ Actress * Nonito Donaire, professional boxer * Rolando Navarette, professional boxer * Manny Pacquiao, professional boxer * Shamcey Supsup, Miss Universe 2011 3rd Runner-Up * Zendee Rose Tenerefe, singer, Youtube personality * Paco Evangelista, Pinoy Big Brother Unlimited (Season 4) 4th Big Placer * XB Gensan, Showtime Grand Champion * Cotabato City is independent of Maguindanao province, which is part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The seat of the ARMM regional government is also in Cotabato City. * General Santos City is a highly urbanized city; figures are excluded from South Cotabato. * Cities * SOCCSKSARGEN has 3 components cities, 1 independent city and 1 highly urbanized city, these cities are vital in the region’s existence. * Cotabato City – is the regional center of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao but the city is actually part of the SOCCSKSARGEN region and does not belong to the ARMM. * General Santos City – dubbed as the â€Å"Tuna Capital of the Philippines† because of the bountiful existence of Yellow fin Tuna in Sarangani Bay,and as the Highly-Urbanized City it serves as the center of the Metropolitan and the center of trade and industry of SOCCSKARGEN. * Kidapawan City – Kidapawan, the city hailed as â€Å"A Spring in the Highland†, comes from the words â€Å"TIDA† which means spring and â€Å"PAWAN† meaning highland. The city is found at the bottom of the majestic Mt. Apo, the country’s tallest mountain making it a great spot and first-rate tourist attraction. Kidapawan is situated at the southeastern section of Cotabato province, placed in the middle of three other major cities of Davao, Cotabato, General Santos and Koronadal * Koronadal City – a.k.a. Marbel is dubbed as the â€Å"Sports Mecca of the South† because of hosting 2 Palarong Pambansa, National Secondary Press Conference and the Mindanao Business Conference, It is the Regional Center of SOCCSKSARGEN * Tacurong City – is the only city of Sultan Kudarat and it is famous of its Bird Sanctuary. Sarangani Province Sarangani is a province of the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao. Its capital is Alabel and borders South Cotabato to the north and Davao del Sur to the east. To the south lies the Celebes Sea. The province is divided into two parts, separated by the Sarangani Bay, and it used to be part of South Cotabato until it was made an independent province in 1992. Sarangani is surrounded by the Celebes Sea, Sarangani Bay, and the provinces of South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Davao del Sur. The province is also the coastal zone of SOCSKSARGEN (South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani, General Santos City), one of the country’s fast growing development clusters. It has seven municipalities (Alabel, Malapatan, Glan, Malungon, Maasim, Kiamba, and Maitum) with 140 barangays. Its vast beachfronts, rolling hills, and fertile plains offer plenty of opportunities. Geography The province is bounded by Sultan Kudarat in the west, South Cotabato in the north, Davao del Sur in the east, and Celebes Sea in the south. Between the eastern and western parts of the province is General Santos City. Political Subdivision The province has one Congressional Representative, and seven municipalities. Population The population of the province as of 2000 census is 410,622. Language/Dialect Sarangani’s mixed population of Cebuano-speaking Blaans and Muslims in the east coast, Ilocano-speaking T’bolis, Manobos, and Muslim in the west coast, and Ilonggo-speaking B’laans and Kaolos in the north uplands, is unique and in harmony. Climate Weather is mild and pleasant and free from typhoons. Industries The province’s agri and fishery based enterprises maintain banana plantations; cattle ranches; bangus, hito, tilapia, tiger prawn fishponds; mariculture; and salt farms. Livestock is just as viable. With more than 7,000 hectares of mango plantation, Sarangani is an emerging source in SOCSKSARGEN aside from being a large producer of copra and sugarcane. Giant companies like DOLE Philippines have ventured into banana, pineapple, and asparagus growing. Fishing and aquaculture also sustain the local economy. ————————————————- Tourism in Sarangani Province * Bangsi Festival January | Maitum, Sarangani Province The Bangsi Festival celebrates Maitum’s prosperous fishing industry, particularly on bangsi (flying fish). The festival features street dancing p†¦ Read more * Maitum Cave The Maitum Cave, also known as the Ayub Cave, is located seven kilometers from the town hall. The cave is home to various potshards from various periods, including those that are likely 3000 years †¦ Read more * Lubi-Lubi Festival October 8 – 11 | Glan, Sarangani ProvinceThe Lubi-Lubi Festival showcases the various uses of the coconut tree through street dances and other celebrations. Source: saranganiprov†¦ South Cotabato Geography South Cotabato is located in the southern of the island of Mindanao. It is bounded by the province of Sultan Kudarat in the north and west, in the east and south by the city of General Santos and province of Sarangani. It lies at a latitude of about 6 degrees and 15†² north and about 125 degrees longitude. Its main access to the sea is through the Sarangani Bay where the modern port of General Santos City is location Political Subdivision South Cotabato has 10 municipalities and one city, 198 barangays and two congressional districts. Population South Cotabato’s population was registered at 690,728 as of the 2000 census. Languages/Dialects For the year 2000, the majority of the population spoke Hiligaynon, Cebuano, T’boli, Ilocano, Bilaan, Maguindanao, and Tagalog. Climate South Cotabato is a typhoon-free province where rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year while air humidity generally follows the rainfall pattern. The months from March to June are considered the hottest while December and January are the coolest. Major Industries South Cotabato is an agribusiness destination. It had been so since 37 years ago when the first truck carrying pineapple planting materials rumbled through the dirt road of Polomolok. Long after the dust has settled, South Cotabato has emerged to be the leading producer of peineapple, asparagus, corn, rice, and cattle fattening. Today it claims to be the bread basket of the South. * JC Garden It is located along the national highway, barangay Carpenter Hill. JC Garden is a flower garden specialized in orchid production. Source:RDC XII Official Website Read more * The Siok Falls The Siok Falls is the biggest waterfall in the city. It is located at Barangay Mabini, eleven kilometers from the City proper. Source:RDC XII Official Website Read more * Cadidang Cave and Supong Falls This tourist destination is located at Barangay San Jose, Koronadal City. It can be reached by motorcycle. Source:RDC XII Official Website Read more * Millinium and Cabillion Falls These two waterfalls are found in the mountain of barangay Cacub. The falls are seventeen kilometers away from the heart of the City and is accessible by an improvised motorcycle called skylab.&nbs†¦ Read more * Kalaja Karst Area Gensan is not only home to tuna and Manny Pacquiao. If you are planning to be a rock climber, there’s an area in Gensan worth visiting. Kalaja cave has been the training ground for aspiring r†¦ Read more * Helobong Festival (T’Boli) November 9- November 11 | Lake Sebu, South CotabatoLake Sebu is one of the prettiest places in the Philippines. The place is rich in history because of the Tiboli people residing in the area†¦.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Productive assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Productive assessment - Essay Example As a result he was able to see the different features and benefits that each product had to offer. Consequently, he could deduce the marketing rationale of why a certain model was more or less than another and what features one could expect to find on the model in the lower, median, and high end price ranges. Dee Fink of the Oklahoma Instructional Development Program labels this approach â€Å"Doing† because Donald’s exposure to the products permits him to categorize them and create an appropriate hierarchy in his mind from which to delineate a value for each product that he can understand and remember. Dr. Charles Bonwell conducts Active Learning workshops where he helps school teachers learn this technique. According to Dr. Bonwell, the purpose of his workshops is to train instructors to move away from the classical approach of relying almost exclusively on the lecture as the primary learning tool to moving into an environment where the student participates directly i n all aspects of his/her learning experience.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Case Formulation for a successful SAP (ERP System) Literature review

Business Case Formulation for a successful SAP (ERP System) Implementation - Literature review Example Aladwani (2001) elucidates that, businesses are operating in environments that are undergoing continuous experiences of dynamic changes and as a result, many organizations are striving hard to remain competitive. Nonetheless, the changes pose challenges for most companies as they focus on improving their business practices and procedures, as a way of maintaining a strategic influence in the competitive market using the current forms of information systems. More significantly, the advancements have seen organizations adapt support information systems with advanced operations that include Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, which enhance companies maximization of strategic management of its resources by allowing maximum potential use of diverse enterprise systems that suit the organizational needs (Peffers, Gengler & Tuunanen, 2003). In most cases, the ERP systems implemented are based on the extensive knowledge of the industry, readily usable assets besides proven ERP processes, strategies and technologies. Kerimo & Uluhan (2003), emphasis on the fact that the use of clearly implemented ERP systems for a suitable company practices provide viable solutions that remain significant in achievement of business advantages in the competitive global markets. Nah & Delgado (2006) describes the use of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems as being of great importance to companies as it offers integrated, enterprise-wide systems that can be used in the provision of automated support. As a result, the automated support system will allow effectiveness and efficiency of business procedures as it is considered essential for standard business processes within and outside operations of organizations. More considerably, companies have found it beneficial to adopt an ERP system that allows for improvements in management and decision-making. More considerably, the implementation

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Safety And Danger Of GM Food Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 4

Safety And Danger Of GM Food - Essay Example Using findings from studies that have been conducted and an analysis of the genetic makeup and the number of chromosomes of various organisms, this paper will establish facts about the concept of genetic mutations. It will examine and establish the facts behind the allegation that genetic engineering techniques are the reason behind the increased number of cancer cases globally. Cancer is caused by the existence and persistent growth of cells which are unregulated. It occurs where there is an unregulated growth of cells after cell division in a certain area of the body and the cancerous cells are capable of spreading to other parts of the body. The concept that genetically modified foods are carcinogenic is disputed because the predisposing factors to cancer are vast and their scope is not well understood by experts. Arguments for the case are for the opinion that the genetic composition of humans could be altered the same way that of plants is altered by the introduction of foreign genes thus causing the growth of cancerous cells. Even though there are scientists who see it as baseless, some have still gone ahead and conducted a number of experiments to determine the real effects of genetically modified foods have been conducted using rats. In this particular experiment, a group of rats is fed on a lifelong diet of some of the best selling genetically modified corn while the control experiment was fed with normal nongenetically modified meals. A report by Poulter, 2012, on the studies conducted showed that the rats that were fed with genetically modified corn developed tumors and some of their organs stopped functioning properly. 65 percent of them had developed tumors by the twenty-fourth month. On the other hand, the tumor rate of the rats that had been fed with normal food was at thirty percent (Poulter, web).

Learning Support Assistants Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Learning Support Assistants - Essay Example Whether it should be rhyme based or phoneme based or mix of the two methods. Earlier evidence, like that of Ehri et al (2001) have found that training children to adopt analytic phonologically word based words-level strategies in the early readings help in improving reading and spelling ability. The role of LSAs is to help the children with the poor reading abilities in small groups. They have good experience but only have the basic training. Despite their crucial role with the 'at-risk' students, their contribution has not been fully explored. There have been strong evidences, which show that these teaching assistants can provide crucial support in teaching methodology. Thus the main aim of the research is to find out the effectiveness of LSA based system in the education system where presently this is not typical. There are several ways to teach the phonological and decoding skills. In the rhyme based intervention programmes children are made to pronounce the whole word like 'cut', 'but' and so on. While in the phoneme based method the students are made to give importance to each and every letter of the word, pronounce it and then add them all together. Thus the second aim of the research is to find out which method of intervention will be more effective, rhyme based or phoneme based or the combination of the two. Methodology: The study of intervention was carri... One morning LSAs met with the authors to get the feel of the training material. From first nine responding schools 498 selected students were screened by LSAs to find the poorest students. All the students had experienced three months of Year 1 National Curriculum classes. One LSA was deployed in each school. They were trained to screen the children on the measures of phonological awareness, word reading and spelling, non-word reading and letter-sound knowledge. Screening Materials: Students were made to recite the nursery rhymes if they knew them. If they did not know it then the adults would say a rhyme and check if the child could complete it. The purpose was to clarify if the child knew the word 'rhyme'. In the rhyme matching, the children were shown the picture of the animals. They were then asked to find the picture of an animal that rhymed with some particular picture of animal, say like 'dog'. There were two practice trials and 12 experimental trials in this test. In rhyme generation children were shown the picture of a particular animal and then made to name the other animals whose name matched with that animal. If there were no answers then children were given the examples. In the blending method of screening LSA would pretend to be a Robot and make the sound like /m/-/at/. The children were asked to blend together the sounds and make some word from it like 'mat'. The LSA would complete the work if children did not respond. In the Segmentation method it was opposite, the children were given a word like 'pat'. They were told to break it and sound it like the robot. They had to break the word in either two or three parts. All these phonological tasks were combined together from a single

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

IRobot Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

IRobot - Article Example The Roomba Robot was a home care robot that would take care of some fundamental home care duties such as house cleaning. In addition, iRobot carried out some military duties and was used for military defense. The launch of iRobot was a success for the iRobot company, and made work easier for both home use and military use. The board of directors provides a great source of intelligence or the running hand the management of the company. The iRobot company secured a long-standing contract with the military. In order to achieve its success, iRobot has had to undertake intensive research and development and budget allot of money on its noble idea. The aim of this industry was to become the leading robotic industry in the world. This made the company grow to recruit over 500 highly qualified professionals who ensured that the company achieved its objectives. Moreover, the company made alliances with other highly qualified commercial companies such as the Boeing group, and the advanced scientific concept. The motive of these alliances was to enable the company to develop and improve upon products that was almost impossible for the company to develop by itself using its own technology. In order to achieve these high standards, the company had to have a good financial position with an excellent cash and long-term debt rate. This enabled the company to have a sustainable competitive advantage over other competitors such as Japanese’s robot developer companies. iRobot Company benefits much than other competitive companies. This is because of its resources and capabilities that have enabled the company develop. One of its main strengths is its cost advantage. The company benefits from cost advantage in that it produces robots at a lower cost than its competitors do. This is because of the high level of technology that they use with the help of other high technology companies such as Boeing and advanced scientific concept. Moreover, the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Case study on violence Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

On violence - Case Study Example Violence has many categories and has detrimental effects within society that continues to be the focal point of discussion. The use of pressure and abusing power itself is violence and is associated with psychology, retaliation, hatred and other human emotion. One cannot ignore the fact that violence is a decompression of an event that dynamically impacted an individual. This paper will discuss many aspects of violence with key insights and new details based on comprehensive research. In order to acknowledge and understand the true essence of violence, one must understand the root cause of violence. Violence is an issue that is directly associated with emotion and mental health of an individual. Behavioral violence is defined by a force of physical aggressive behavior against another person. In fact, scientist agrees that violence is embedded in humans. Since the dawn of mankind, humans engaged in acts of violence as they would hunt for food and seek shelter. Although some might thin k that in certain scenarios, violence is essential. For instance, primitive humans exerted violence to capture their prey for the needs of surviving. Violence according to many experts can be a critical component of adaptive nature and survival. However, it is clear that violence exerts beyond the traditional methods of survival. A prime example of this is retaliation from a particular incident that had a dramatic effect on psyche of a person. In a midst of a heated moment, violence can be exerted due to rage, anger and fury. Interestingly enough, most people at times acknowledge that they were at fault for conducting this type of behavior. Another key aspect of violence sometimes is used for confidence and pride. Many individuals exert violence sometimes to fulfill their ego and to keep an â€Å"alpha dog† reputation which enables them to achieve a superiority complex. In fact, the â€Å"alpha male personality† image is often brought up in discussions of the notion of human violence. Dale Peterson and Richard Wrangham in â€Å"Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence† conclude that violence in human is embedded. The evolutionary correlation is made from the ancestral ape violent behavior to modern humans. Undoubtedly, the factors characteristics with violence are broad and can be mixed of several other factors. Violence is also associated with propagating cause and is used for justification for a certain outcome. For instance, radical groups utilize violence in order to maintain the conservative norms of society and refute liberal change. Although this is not done out of pain or retaliation, it is used as a threat to implement a purpose that they seek. The Crusaders were the prime examples of aggressors that exerted violence to an extreme means. The environmental surrounding of children raised in a safe environment also plays a critical role. Clearly, the effects of a safe harboring environment in which children are nurtured yields a child less likely to conduct crime. A child that lacks the mutual connection with his parent is more likely to commit crimes. Many children who do not receive this attention often get involved in gangs to fulfill the need of belonging. The young generation in today’s society is the focal point of this conclusive study. Youth violence undoubtedly has sparked much attention as it has become an uncontrollable. Research indicates that around 34% of the offenders arrested for federal charges were under the age of 21 according

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy - Assignment Example This era of panic is termed as the Cold War. This paper is all about the famous President Truman and the declaration he made at this point in time. A situation that required US diplomatic efforts during President Truman’s time was when he tried to formulate a forum instead of the futile League of Nations. The new venture, United Nations Organization, aimed at dissolving the differences between nations without allowing them to lead to devastating wars. As the legacy of the League of Nations was criticized, the formation of a powerful and unbiased agency was a herculean task. Undoubtedly, its main intention was to gain a significant role for Americans in the international life, and he succeeded in its making to a great extent. However, there were a number of roadblocks amidst. The major barrier to the formation of the UN came from the Soviet Union as they were reluctant to join it. At this juncture, ( ac cited in American president: A reference resource),Truman managed to ensure their participation in the founding conference of United Nations Organization in San Francisco by sending a special emissary Harry Hopkins to Moscow. However, the San Francisco Conference ended in June 1945 after most of its participating nations, including the Soviet Union, signed the founding U.N. Charter. If Truman had not intervened with his diplomacy, the formation of UN would have been delayed (American president: A reference resource). The diplomatic doctrine that Mr. President followed was that United States would provide political, economic, and military service to all democratic nations which were under the threat of external or internal authoritarian forces. Evidently, the president indirectly mentioned the threat of communist countries especially from the Soviet Union to the democratic and capitalist countries in the Eastern Europe. He made this doctrine lucid in a speech delivered before the joint session of Congress on March 12, 1947. The immediate reason for this spe ech was the declaration by the British government that it would no longer help the Greek government in its civil war against the Greek communist party by providing military and economic assistance. In his speech, Truman urged the Congress to support the Greek government against the communists. For, the US believed that Soviet Union had been supporting the Greek communist party, and unfortunately if the communist party won the war, the Soviet Union would ultimately influence the policies of the Greek. America never wanted the communist party to flourish posing a threat to capitalism and imperialism. Truman (as cited in The Truman doctrine 1947) believed that proliferation of communist party will be a serious threat to the US; and as the relationship between the US and Soviet Union had been worsening, America viewed the Soviet intervention in Greek and Turkish affairs with suspicion. The withdrawal of Britain from providing assistance to Greece made the declaration of Truman’s diplomatic doctrine imminent. To many, Truman’s doctrine may seem wise political manipulation to keep U.S. rivals far off. But to some extent, it could put forth some effects on the US and other countries as well. One of the major demerits of the communist form of government that the world witnessed was that the rulers went totalitarians once they got into power.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Legalizing Gambling Essay Example for Free

Legalizing Gambling Essay Gambling is legal in many places, its not either a criminal or dangerous activity provided it is done responsibly, and in accordance with the law. Have you ever wagered on a game? If so you were gambling and should have been fined. Lawmakers have decided that it is evil to gamble, they have justified it as a means to scam billions from citizens in order to compensate for their mismanagement of tax revenue. They pass laws that could put a taxpayer in jail for placing a single dollar wager on a pool game. Legalizing gambling nationally could potentially benefit our economic situation. All gambling was once legal. Looking back only 75-100 years ago most of our states had lotteries in place. Over the past century, as a result of abuse and moral fervor the majority forms of gambling have been prohibited. The history of gambling in the United States evolved from Europe. The Puritans and Quakers took little time to create first laws against gambling in 1638. Casino gambling is becoming increasingly popular especially in southern states. Native Americans are allowed to establish bingo parlors and casinos on their reservations, although Las Vegas and Atlantic City remain gambling tourist top destination choice. Many states allow horse and dog racing tracks and then there’s the people who bet on sporting events, card games, and almost anything you can imagine in the privacy of their own home. The first thing to do is to regulate gambling, both land-based and online. After the legislative base is created and regulation covers every aspect of the gambling industry, its half way to being legalized. I don’t see why we should lose a couple dollars to a pool hustler, when we could be hustled legally by the state. Gambling offers individuals the adrenaline rush that greater opportunity lies within their own hands. People should not be denied an activity that they enjoy partaking in. Government can earn revenues from legalized gambling which can be diverted towards bettering our society. Legalizing gambling would increase employment opportunities in society which could help to reduce the amount of working capable people out of a job. Gambling establishments have shown to increase employment opportunities as well as improve tourism in the right areas. The presence of gambling establishments is also beneficial to society because they can contribute the revenues to local governments which then could use the profits for social programs that would benefit both gamblers and non gamblers. Legalized commercial gambling is becoming an increasing controversy within our state governments. There is no doubt that many different forms of legalized gambling has exploded in the region and around the country, if the government gives full support of legalization they will be doing all US citizens a favor. Some argue that gambling is an addiction, one that can become dangerous and harmful to the general public. The truth is that like all other influenced jobs it can be a way of making a living for yourself and your family. Though there are a lot of people that struggle with an addiction to gambling, there are probably just as many people who are responsible gamblers and have enough self control to moderate there wagering hobbies. Legalizing gambling nationally will help stimulate our struggling economy in many ways. If our government would be willing to try to implement new laws to legalize and regulate it theres no way a short time period of testing these ideas would leave any permanent damage on our nation.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Red Bull International Marketing Plan Business Essay

Red Bull International Marketing Plan Business Essay Red bull with no doubt has been transformed to multinational company by the product which invigorates peoples mind and body .Red bull is multinational is company offering only two products invigorating peoples mind and body. Its international success has become subject of interest for many researchers in field of international marketing. The current report addresses international marketing strategies of the Redbull company as major international player in energy drink and beverage industry. Customer loyalty and relative production cost are main advantages of the company. But company is threatened by major players of international market in its penetrated territories. Still company is enjoying growth in its international energy drink markets. Internal analysis of Red bull strategies has reviled use of conventional and unconventional markets to expand its international markets. The sophisticated HR strategies of the Redbull is another propellers of the company in international markets. Redbull follows focus differentiation strategy in beverage industry. So Red bull has become selected choice of massive young population, which sales 1 million can of energy drink every year. SWOT analysis of the company depicted some strengths and weaknesses. The analysis showed proper adoption of generic marketing strategy, right international segmentation, right targeting, right positioning and good sales record. The marketing strategy of red bull can be easily applied to different cultures around the world that have sizeable youth population. History Background History Being dressed in special way is not enough to be good seller in beverage industry. In an industry which its products are found every where like hypermarket, supermarket, grocery and even in clubs selling is not easy. Red bull was first introduced by Dietrich Mateschitz Austrian business man who teamed up with Thai person to bring production of traditional Thai drink to international level. The product was canned in silver shiny can and named Red Bull because it showed head to head bull fight. (Red Bull Founder Rides Wave of Success) In 1987, the product was then taken to Austria where it had its first groundbreaking success in no time. In started going international in 1992, when they entered Hungary. Red Bull is currently active in over 100 countries, energizing the population and creating competition as they go along. One source mentioned that there are over 150 energy drink brands, however, all inferior to the mighty Red Bull (A REFRESHED CREW IS AN EFFICIENT CREW). With over 1 billion cans sold each year, Red Bull controls 70% of the worlds market share of energy drinks. Background Red Bull became strong when they created a high quality drink that is only made in Austria. Furthermore, all of its ingredients are synthetically made in pharmaceutical companies to grantee high quality and safety. Moreover, due to the ingredients of the product, it is said that Red bull (Red Bull FAQ): Improves performance Improves concentration and reaction speed Improves vigilance Improves emotional status Stimulates metabolism However, the main reason for the success of Red Bull is in its advertising style. Red Bull tends to spend very little on conventional or traditional marketing tools, like TV and Print ads. Their marketing strategy is usually out of the box and creative. Red Bull tends to be more active in sponsoring extreme spots and giving away samples in local events. Due to the fact that Mateschitz has been involved in Formula One racing for more than a decade, he used the events to draw attention to his brand. In addition, he sponsored the World Stunt Awards, an annual fund-raiser to help injured stunt workers (Red Bull Founder Rides Wave of Success). Moreover, some observers say that Red Bull uses the anti-branding method of advertising, where they broke the usual method of marketing and branding. Actually what they did was use the buzz marketing strategy or better known as word of mouth. With this strategy, they associated their brand with the youth culture and extreme and adventure-related spo rts, such as motor sports, mountain biking, snowboarding and dance music. Thus they targeted their brand directly to people from Generation Y, the so-called millennials: people born after 1981 who were believed to be cynical of traditional marketing strategies (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). The Buzz over Red Bull among the youth and their underground attitude has created Red Bulls reputation as the drink within that community. That is why Red Bull continues to use Viral marketing internationally, where the company would rather restrict the supply of Red Bull and not advertise it, expecting that growing numbers of target consumers to catch the bug and its reputation would spreads. Through this strategy, Red Bull has successfully captured 70% of the à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.6 billion market (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). External Analysis Porter Five Force Analysis External analysis is very important, the analyst taking this step should be aware of how competitive strategy has to be formulated. The analyst must bring all relevant social and economic factors in both micro and macro environment to consideration. The people in charge of formulating competitive strategy of the companies should know all strategic options available to the company. They should know all forces inside and outside industry affecting the company. Michael porter has unique framework for industry analysis and formulation of the strategy. Rivalry among existing competitors, buyers, suppliers, potential entrants into the business and Threat of substitute products are those five forces which can have positive or negative effects on industry structure by making the industry more or less competitive. Potential Entrants Redbull can produce bubble less energy drinks among other soft drink producers. If the barriers of entry are high, it is difficult for potential competitors to enter the market. Three main sources of barriers to new entry: brand loyalty of red bull customers, absolute cost advantages in Redbull s production line, and economies of scale enjoyed b RedBull. Brand loyalty Customers of RedBull have become loyal to the brand. The attend special events sponsored by the Redbull, respond to professional advertisement put by the company and name is known for its quality among its customers. Brand loyalty is a barrier for any new entrant to enter the energy drink industry. Cost advantage According to the Michael Porter, normally cost disadvantage is a big barrier for companies to enter an industry as new entrants because it can be cost advantage for existing companies in that industry. Also, companies with the help of cost advantages can compete and beat their competitors very easily because usually it is difficult for new entrants to match their companies with the lower cost structure. Therefore, Red Bull because of Red Bulls superior production and operation processes, and their experience in the energy drink industry, and control of its inputs according to their experience in producing red bull drinks, benefit the cost advantages with keeping its quality in the high level. Although there are many energy drinks existing in the industry with the lower price rather than Red Bull, as quality aspect they have not cost advantages both in quality and price, so Red Bull is steps ahead from its competitors in this case. Customer switching cost In food and beverage industry there is no switching cost for costumers with considering the level of quality, therefore it can be considered as threat for existing companies in this industry. In this case, Red Bull is not exceptional, so they need to keep their quality at the same level to not loosing their market share by coming new entrants because it is real threat for them. Government regulations One of big issues and always concerns for companies which like to go internationally is government regulation, also, in this case some Europe countries have problem with selling Red Bull and have tried to ban it. They claim that Red Bull was the cause of death of people in those countries. France, Belgium, and Sweden ban using the mixture of Red Bull and alcohol. So, it can be a threat for them in taking the market share and having a bad image for their brand. . (French Ban on Red Bull (drink) Upheld By European Court) Intensity of Rivalry Rivalry in some industries is characterized by such phrases as warlike, bitter, or cutthroat, whereas in other industries it is termed polite or gentlemanly. Energy drink industry has an intense rivalry because of a number of interacting structural factors: Industry competitive structure Due to the competition in the energy drink market, Red Bull focuses on non-price competitive weapon like offering exhilarating events, high quality products and sponsorship. In contrast with other competitors Red Bull attract more costumers to its company by growing in 45%marketshare. Accordingly Red Bull has a major influence on its competitors performance in the industry because Red Bull is one of the pioneers in energy drink industry and many companies try to obey and consider Red Bull as benchmark. Industry demand In the energy drink industry, because of the various proper advertisements to encourage people to use and drink energy drinks (giving the image that people can fly) the demand for drinks is increasing. Thus, this is a good point for the company because there are lots of opportunities for every company to fill the current demand and rivalry tend to reduce in the industry, also there is space for everyone to jump in enter the industry (growing stage), and the profit of the company is going to increase which is a goal that every company is seeking it. Buyers Having strong and stable costumers are suppliers and producers concerns, producers like to have costumers with large quantity level of ordering and stable financial status basically in energy drink industry especially Red Bull costumers (buyers) are wholesalers and big retailers. These buyers buy the energy drinks through the company or its representatives, and resell them to supermarket, bars, restaurants and end users. Red Bull faces buyers with high level of bargaining power, and it is real risk for Red Bull. Main reasons for this high bargaining power of buyers in this case are; the switching costs in the energy drink industry are very low. So, Red Bull buyers can switch from Red Bull to other energy drink companies which produce it with lower prices without any difficulty. Also, in most cases energy drink buyers (retailers and wholesalers) purchase products in large quantities, and it is obvious that the more buying in quantity, the more bargaining power the buyer has. So they c an use their power to reduce the cost of energy drinks. Suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers is the same story like bargaining power of buyers but from other side. Red Bull company has both kind of suppliers as bargaining power, some very strong and others weak, so they can balance between them. For instance, the supplier of Glucuronolactone is Glaxo Smithkline Company. Red Bull energy drink buys their Glucurnopolacton inputs from this company. So the bargaining power of this supplier is very high on Red Bull. But the other ingredients are assembled from several small suppliers, and Red Bull has the bargaining power on them. Also, Red Bull has many channels and substitutes suppliers for its normal raw materials, so they can switch from any supplier to cheaper and more flexible one. Substitutes All producers always carry the concern of substitute products for their products and always looking for ways to protect and survive themselves from this phenomenon. Energy drink industry isnt an exception, so players in this industry always try to keep level of quality high, convenience price and other thing which may make costumers more satisfy. Coffee industry can be a threat for energy drinks because of the existing caffeine in coffee and it can be a powerful potential product substitute for energy drink. Therefore, Red bull must take care of its pricing strategy and product quality to keep its costumers and satisfy them more day by day which they were successful due to reports not only Red Bull could protect its products against other substitutes but also, they have increased in their market share in US market by 45% . Industry Analysis and Peer Review Industry Characteristics Beverage industry is divided into many categories such as alcoholic vs. non alcoholic, (hard vs. soft drinks) and within soft drinks still there is other segmentation such as carbonated soft drink (CSD) and non carbonated soft drink. Carbonated Energy Drinks account for less than half of the total volume. This figure is heavily skewed however by the popularity of still brands in Asia (Canadean Press release) According to Beverage Digest, in 2004 the U.S. non-alcoholic refreshment market totaled 14 billion cases (192-oz). Carbonated soft drinks made up 73.1% of the total with non-carbonated products comprising 13.7% and packaged bottled water accounting for 13.2%. Americans spent roughly $92.9 billion annually on refreshment beverages. Energy drink is a relatively new product introduced in 80s and has been growing noticeably with the market more than doubling in size since 1998 (Canadean Press release). The following chart is evidence of this inevitable growth and the attraction of this growth for drink manufacturer. The industry has been experiencing a significant growth and still growing at the speed that draws the big players in soft like Coca Cola drink to enter to this high margin business. Food and beverage market are critical enough that out of 100 new product development 90 NPD fails. The failure results from a poor interpretation of consumers trend and translation of those to opportunities. Austrian company, Red Bull, as a pioneer trend settler has made its fortune from their unique strategies in advertising, marketing and other products characteristics such as Packaging, Flavor, color and Product claim. Global consumption According to Beverage digest report, Asia is the largest leading market in consumption of energy drinks followed by Western Europe and North America as the second and third markets. Asia has been loosing some of 20% of its market share is past 6 years. However, this decline has been offset by the second and third market mainly due to the steady growth in market of carbonated E.D in North America. North American market is now almost 40 times greater than it was in 1998 Peer Review In North America today more than 200 energy drinks existed in US. According to bevNET.com, after a rigorous marketing research the best energy drinks are AMP by Pepsi Cola, KMX Red by Coca-Cola Company Red Bull by Red Bull North America. Red Bulls market dominance seems assured. No other competitors have either the distribution channels or, more importantly, the posture of rebellious infamy to be considered real threats. Year 2001, in UK energy drinks market 21 new drinks have been introduced that would have force the red bull into a competition. However, red bull can still enjoy being a market leader. In the following table there are representations of top 14 non- alcoholic markets where some of them are in the specific market of the energy drinks. Coca-Cola(Juice, Soft Drinks, Water) ($21bn) Suntory(Water, Soft Drinks) ($4.4bn) Nestle(Coffee, Soft Drinks, Water) ($19bn) Starbucks(Coffee) ($4.0bn) PepsiCo(Juice, Soft Drinks, Water) ($10bn) Sara Lee(Coffee) ($2.7bn) Kraft Foods(Coffee, Powdered Drinks) ($4.6bn) Tchibo(Coffee) ($2.7bn) Unilever(Tea ) ($4.5bn) Red Bull(Energy Drinks) ($1.6bn) Cadbury Schweppes(Soft Drinks) ($4.5bn) Cott Corp(Juice, Soft Drinks) ($1.4bn) Danone(Soft Drinks, Water) ($4.5bn) Ocean Spray Source: http://www.mind-advertising.com/sectors/sector_softdrinks.htm Industry Life Cycle Energy drinks were originally pioneered by Asian companies, but they became popular in Europe the late 80s with the arrival of Red Bull. There are more than 200 energy drinks existed in US market only and this figure is increasing due to the high margin of this business. In 2004, carbonated soft drinks posted the growth of 1% which is unlike its usual trend, case of growing 2% to 4%. Noticeably, this inevitable growth was driven by Diet and Energy drinks. While other carbonated drinks posted volume change of one Digit, brands like Red Bull and Hansen Natural reported the 45% and 56% of positive volume change in 2004. The market, now estimated to be worth $10 million, has been predicted to grow to $300 million or even as much as $2 billion in the next few years. Double digit growth in the market is the main factor contributing to Energy drinks life cycle in its embryonic phase (growth). Since the market is not old enough, the number of players are increasing and even the Coca Cola and Pepsi are the new entrant which add to the well-built assumption of embryonic phase. Brand loyalty and high expectations are still questionable in this stage and its because the consumers are still exposing to new products and new claims. Thus, players are fighting for product feature extension such as low-carbs and sugar free plus new products claims such as improve concentration, reaction time and endurance. After introduction of Red Bull in late 80s, industry went to an introduction phase. By 1998, the size of the industry doubled and still growing with a fast pace following highlighted area in the graph is an approximate stage of the life cycle at the moment. Internal Analysis Value Chain Primary Activity: Inbound outbound logistics Logistical issues at Red Bull in of high importance. Due to the fact that all ingredients in the Red Bull drink is synthetically made by pharmaceutical companies, they make sure that their products are carefully handled to maintain the quality and avoid unnecessary costs. Red Bull always makes sure that they align with premium logistics provider to achieve their strategic goals. Red Bull aims to have web-based visibility on their supply chain, thus they base their logistical activities or selection on: Flexible warehouse network Transportation management capabilities Strong information technology offering With 1,600 employees working for Red Bull world wide (Gulf News, Red Bull plans to set up Dubai plant), Red Bull required those standards as they are experiencing year-after-year of high growth, which make the inventory forecasting and management challenging. That is why logistical issues have become increasingly important, and that is why they choose to outsource the logistics to companies that can comply with their network of multi-client warehouses needs (Red Bull OH Logistics). Interestingly, Red Bull uses small distributors in small regional markets, if those small distributors dont perform up to Red Bulls standards they establish a warehouse and push young people to stuff their vans with Red Bulls product and distribute it every where. This way, the small distributors generally break even within three months and are profitable within six (A Bulls Market The marketing of Red Bull Energy Drink). Primary Activity: Operations There is little information about the operations process of Red Bull. However we will enlighten you with the contents and brief information about the packaging company that Red Bull deals with. The great product which is provided by Red Bull one of its main elements of success. Known for improving performance, improving concentration and reaction speed, improving vigilance, improving emotional status and stimulating metabolism, Red Bulls secret is in its ingredients. The ingredients in each Red Bull drink (250ml) consist of: Taurine (1000mg) Glucuronolacton (600mg) Caffeine (80mg) Niacin (20mg) Vitamin B6 (5mg) Pantothenic Acid (5mg) Vitamin B12 (0.005mg) According to Red Bull, It is a combination of all the ingredients together, which result in Red Bulls benefits (Red Bull, Ingredients).. The packaging process of Red Bull is fully done in Austria. And the supplier of Red Bulls cans is Rexam, and they are considered to be the worlds largest provider of beverage cans. Rexam manufactures different types of cans for different industries, however almost half of their revenues come from Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola. Moreover, industry estimates present that Rexam gained about $22 million from the sales of Red Bull cans (How Does Red Bull Package Its Product?). Primary Activity: Marketing and Sales: With the control of 70% of the à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.6 billion market (about à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¤1.12 billion), Red Bull has achieved all of this through intensive unconventional marketing strategies. Targeting young people, mainly the Y-generation, Red Bull has utilized eccentric marketing tools that has extremely effective on the target market. The strategy of sponsoring local activities like the Red Bull music academy in the USA, parachuting in South Africa, Go-Karts in Kuwait, and many more in different countries has achieved its target of attracting its target market which gets excited when viewing such sports. Some of the strategies used for marketing Red Bull include: Using pick-up trucks as mobile displays, painted blue and silver with a giant can of the drink mounted on top of the vehicle. Designed to be eye-catching, these devices were aimed at promoting the red bull brand as youthful and slightly off-the-wall. Cans of the drink were also given out free to people on the street who had been identified as being in need of energy. Red Bull was given to club DJs, empty cans would also be left on tables in hot spots such as trendy bars, clubs and pubs. Secondary Activity: Technology The information about the technology that Red Bull uses was quite scares. However we could safely say that Red Bull little activity done on their RD side because Red Bull does enjoy any sort of economies of scale. Red Bull has only one main product, which is the Red Bull energy drink and recently they introduced the new Red Bull energy drink sugar-free. Hence, the main difference between the original Red Bull drink and the sugar-free drink is that it has 0g of sucrose and 0g of glucose, where the original product has 21.5g of sucrose and 5.25g of glucose. Moreover, each sugar-free drink has only 8 calories (EU)/ 10 calories (USA), yet it does not loose any of its energetic effects (Red Bull, Ingredients). Secondary Activity: Human Recourse Red Bull is famous for practicing what they preach, especially when it comes to recruitment. Due to the fact that Red Bull promotes their product as a Hip and young product, they make sure to recruit staffs that are young, in touch with youth culture, dynamic and innovative. For example, they achieve that by recruiting university students as student brand managers to promote its product among young student groups (What Sort of People Work For Red Bull?). However their recruiting does not happen by Red Bull themselves, but they makes sure that it is implemented by all of the outsourced activities. However, it is known that most of Red Bulls 1,600 employees are marketing experts and are the real movers of the Red Bull drink (Marketing Eye, Red Bull Car). Group Customers and Market Segmentation As it is known any successful company should have a certain customer group. The customers that were targeted by Red Bull were the ones that were looking for excitement, alertness, and concentration depending on the age, status, and lifestyle. Four consumer categories were Red Bulls target under the age of 16-30: students, club people, sport people, and employees. College students were the main target of Red Bull. Since college students look for something that would enhance their concentration on doing their assignments and projects, and staying overnight for studying for exams then Red Bull is the best solution for them. It would improve their concentration in their studying Moreover; Red Bull has used this group to enhance their promotion. According to Biz/ed, throw parties those students were emboldened to market the product in the campuses of the universities as what they call them student brand managers. Those students collect the information and make a report of a market data research to the company. Depending on that strategy and the youth generation (high school and colleges students), Red Bull was able to spread the reputation and the popularity of the drink and concentrating on supplying the product rather than applying the traditional marketing ways of promotion (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). The second category of Red Bull customers are the night club people, since the drink has some substances that would increase the persons emotional status. Moreover, Red Bull is offered in the nightclubs depending on the cultural background. For example, nightclubs in Dubai offer Red Bull for the people who do not drink alcohol like the Muslims, which made it a major substitute for alcohol to that group. However, Red Bull is still individually mixed with alcohol to create both the Red Bull highness and the alcohol sensation. Furthermore, Red Bull has also made music events for those groups of customers like the Red Bull Music Academy in 2005 in Seattle, Washington in the United States. (Red Bull Music Academy 2005) For the physical exertion that the drink offers, Red Bull has also promoted the product for the sport people. Among those people, there are the athletes, the racing drivers, the airborne-sport people, water-sport people, the bikers, the skateboarders, and the skiers. Red Bull highly endorsed this group with many sport festivals, and one of the famous one among those is the Red Bull Dolomite Man that took place in Austria in 2005. (Red Bull Dolomite Man) Red Bulls minor groups are the white-collar and the blue-collar workers. Red Bull can support white-collar workers to concentrate more on the job to improve their performance, and it would also help them stay overnight if he or she needed. The drink would also allow the blue-collar workers to work extra hours with out the feeling of exhaustions for the physical exertion that the drink provides. However, Red Bull did not concentrate on this group, so there were no special efforts directed towards them. Within the four groups, there a considerable amount of customers who look for diet product. For that category, Red Bull produced the sugar-free Red Bull to combine the diet customers with rest of the customers that are within the four groups. Business Level and Generic Strategy In the generic strategy Red Bull there are two views, there is a generic strategy from energy drink market perspective, and there is a generic strategy from soft drink market perspective. From the energy drink market perspective, since Red Bull has few economies of scope, the strategy adopted by Red Bull to follow is differentiation. The price of the drink is about 5Dhs in the UAE, which shows the clear differentiation of the product, especially in a market where every body is competing on the same customer segment. According to Biz/ed, Red Bull was able to build a strong brand image through: using Red Bull cars that had big cans on them, giving free cans to people, and providing Red Bull cans to club DJs (A Look at a Key Feature of Red Bulls Business). This strategy made Red Bull to be the market leader of 70% market in the energy drink market. From the soft drink market industry wide perspective Red Bull applies the Focused-differentiation generic strategy. Red Bull has a very good brand image in terms of soft drinks industry. The drink can only maintain this image through focus-differentiating the product by separating their customers according to the demography (age, lifestyle, culture) and the geography, since the industry has many aggressive competitors with a powerful brand image like Coca Cola and Pepsi. SWOT Strengths Industry leadership Throughout the world, Red bull is the leader in the energy drinks market with annual sales of billion dollars. According to the statistics, in year 2003 red bull achieved 80% brand share of the energy drinks market in the UK. Also in the Europe, they produce two-thirds of overall volume in the region. Moreover, Red bull is competing in 13 West European countries and is the main leader in 12 of these and other top 20 brands are having only 17% of share. Since year 2000 (compare to 1990s), it has been a clear shakeout, and fewer new brands are launching new products to the market. Furthermore many products offered by leading drink manufacturers could not compete with Red bull in the market, such as Coca-Colas Burn. (Red Bull SWOT Analysis) Marketing capabilities The successful marketing strategies and consumer awareness of Red bull introduced stimulation drinks to the western market and has resulted functional drinks growth throughout these years. Red bull is increasing its consumer brand awareness by employing targeted marketing campaigns that focuses on 18-25 age groups. Also the company has been differentiating its product by sponsoring dangerous sports such as Formula 1 driving; free skiing; BMX biking etc. Furthermore, Red bull strongly promotes itself by using its slogan: Red bull gives you wings. (Red Bull SWOT Analysis) Alliance with major distributors Red bull has expanded its brands marketing distribution by establishing an association with Cadbury Schweppes in Australia. This association allows consumers to have access to Red bull across the nation. As a result of this partnership, sales of Red bull are 40% higher compared to last year and expecting to rise significantly year-by-year. Furthermore, this partnership can reduce competitive threats from Red bulls rivals and broaden its sales opportunities due to the fact that Cadbury Schweppes can help it to reach channels such as vending machines, food courts, colleges, sports a travel facilities, hospitals etc. Another partnership that Red Bull North America did was with Ozburn-Hessey Logistics, where Red Bull saw its supply chain get boosted last year. OH Logistics, Red Bulls single national provider, handled more than 16,000 shipments of the drink during 2004 and opened five locations in five states in the first 90 days of operation. (Red Bull OH Logistics) (Red Bull SWOT Analy sis) Weaknesses Lack of innovation In year 2004 some new energy drinks have been entered into the market. One of them is called Raw Energy Fuel Cell, which is Canadian vitamin and glucose drink and is certified by World Wrestling Entertainment. This product has quiet the same effects that Red bull has except that it does not contain Taurine and has less caffeine compared to other energy drinks. Furthermore it comes in 330ml PET bottles, which makes it look different compared to Red bull (250ml cans) and other competitors. However Red bull only made little changes to its product format throughout th

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Canadian writing and the language of the colonizer :: Essays Papers

Canadian writing and the language of the colonizer During the latter part of the twentieth century, Canadian writers have looked at the effects of colonialism on the original native population. The culture of the indigenous peoples and the oral tradition used, was for a long time on the verge of being eradicated, as the enforced language of the colonizer became the accepted norm. As many contemporary authors believe that they have been marginalized, they argue that they are similar to the tribal inhabitants, becoming â€Å"...spectators, not elements in what goes on† (Weibe, Rudy. â€Å"Where Is the Voice Coming From?† Canadian Short Fiction, 274). As Canadians they are forced to use a language which is for the most part alien, employing words which have meaning for a metropolitan audience but have little relevance within a Canadian context. In their desire for recognition and in attempting to create an independent identity, authors such as Rudy Weibe and Dennis Lee detail the problems encountered by those who wish to record their experiences, but have been denied a voice. In Where Is the Voice Coming From? , Weibe explores the position of the Cree population, whose oral language was silenced by the sterile, yet powerful voice of the colonizer. Since colonization, the history of Canada has been conveyed from the point of view of the settlers, who ignore the vivid language of the Cree, placing greater emphasis on cold fact and uniformity. While the players in history, ranging from Queen Victoria to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, are given their full titles, their existences reinforced by recorded evidence, the lack of solid fact ensures that the Cree have been almost erased from Canadian history. For Weibe, English descriptions of Almighty Voice provide little evidence of his life, as he has been allocated the role of demonized and feminized scapegoat, in contrast to the white heroes whose masculinity is never questioned. Until recently, when the oral tradition began to be recorded by native writers, including Harry Robinson and Thomas King in All My Relations, the Cree and other tribal inhabitants were unable to provide any alternative to the already existing facts, their experiences resigned to a collective â€Å"...wordless cry† (Weibe, 380). While Weibe brings native concerns to public attention, his choice of subject matter illustrates the problems existing within Canadian literature in general. Driven by a collective sense of guilt, this white reaction ultimately denies the Cree the privilege of telling their own stories.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Culture and Globalization :: Outsourcing, Offshoring, Free Trade

"All that is solid melts into air." This quote by Karl Marx is important in understanding the relationship of modernity, postmodernity, and globalization because the one thing all three terms have in common is that they are ever-changing. The ideas of modernity and postmodernity are always changing along with time, as are the flows of globalization. I think the three terms are ever-changing because they are affected by the world we live in, which is always changing. Since the world is always changing, what is considered "modern" will never stay the same. Everyday new ideas are being thought, knowledge is being created, and new relationships are formed. As long as time keeps changing, the three terms will too. Going back to the quote before, nothing lasts forever. No one really agrees as to what modernity, postmodernity, and globalization really mean. There are various opinions on each term. The only thing people manage to agree on is that postmodernity is a reaction to modernity and that globalization connects everybody in the world in some way. In the article, "Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Societies," it defines modernity with four characteristics. In order for a time period to be considered "modern", it must have a dominance of secular forms of political power and authority, a monetarized exchange economy, a decline of the traditional social order, and a decline of the religious world-view. Each characteristic has to do with a change in what came before it. In order for a society to be considered "modern", it must change completely from the prior society. The ideas of Modernity can be traced back to the Enlightenment period. On page 25 in the article, "Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Societies," it describes the Enlightenment as "the creation of a new framework of ideas about man, society, and nature, which challenged existing conceptions rooted in a traditional world-view, dominated by Christianity." Before that time period, the only thing people were allowed to believe was what the Church told them. During the Enlightenment, people began to think rationally and have their own beliefs. The Enlightenment period began the times of progress we would enjoy to the present time. In the book, "Cosmopolis," on page 14 it says, "We were taught that this 17th century insistence on the power of rationality, along with the rejection of tradition and superstition reshaped European life and society generally.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

charles lindbergh :: essays research papers

Charles Lindbergh Born February 4, 1902, in Detroit, Michigan, Charles Lindbergh grew up on a farm near Little Falls, Minnesota the son of a lawyer/U.S. Congressman. Charles showed exceptional mechanical ability, even as a child, and was encouraged to attend college and make the most of his talent. After graduating high school, Charles stayed on to work at the family farm for two years before enrolling in the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he would study Engineering. Full of a passion for airplanes and the newly expanding field of aviation, Charles Lindbergh left college after two years to attend the Lincoln Flight School in Nebraska. when graduated, Lindbergh would spend the next few years performing daredevil stunts and county fairs and carnivals. Charles enlisted in the United States Army in 1924, to be trained as an Army Air Service Reserve pilot. Graduating the following year, Charles Lindbergh was named the best pilot in his class. In 1919, Raymond Orteig, a New York City hotel owner, offered $25,000 to the first aviator who could fly nonstop from New York to Paris. Several pilots tried and failed. But on May 20, 1927,with The Spirit of St. Louis, Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York, and became the first pilot in the world to make a solo, nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Lindbergh flew some 3600 miles in just over 33-hours and proudly collected his $25,000 reward in front of cheering fans in Paris. The press nicknamed Mr. Lindbergh "Lucky Lindy" and the "Lone Eagle" and he instantly became a hero. With success and fans everywhere, twenty-five year old Lindbergh flew to various Latin-American countries in 1927, at the request of the U.S. government. While working in Mexico, Lindbergh met Anne Spencer Morrow, the daughter of the American Ambassador. They would marry in 1929, and travel the world together, charting new routes for various airlines that are still used by commercial jetliners today. Ms. Lindbergh herself would go on to become a famous poet and writer. Much to world's surprise, twenty month old Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. was kidnapped from his home nursery in New Jersey in 1932, making headlines across the country. Leaving only a ransom note demanding $50,000 in the window and a homemade ladder leaning against the Lindbergh home, it seemed someone had kidnapped the baby of the most famous man in the world and not left any evidence behind.

The Key Isues in the 1800 Presidential Election

1. What were the key issues in the 1800 presidential election? Why is it called the â€Å"Revolution of 1800? † Thomas Jefferson won the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, and even though Adams got more popular votes, Jefferson got New York. But, even though Jefferson triumphed, in a technicality he and Aaron Burr tied for presidency. The vote, according to the Constitution, would now go to the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives.Hateful of Jefferson, many wanted to vote for Burr, and the vote was deadlocked for months until Alexander Hamilton and John Adams persuaded a few House members to change their votes, knowing that if the House voted for Burr, the public outcry would doom the Federalist Party. Finally, a few changed their minds, and Jefferson was elected to the presidency. The â€Å"Revolution of 1800† was that there was a peaceful transfer of power; Federalists stepped down from office after Jefferson won and did so peacefully , though not necessarily happily and the Republicans were more of the â€Å"people’s party† compared to the Federalists. . Discuss the factors that led to the Louisiana Purchase. In 1800, Napoleon secretly induced the king of Spain to cede the Louisiana territory to France. Then, in 1802, the Spaniards at New Orleans withdrew the right of deposit guaranteed by the Pinckney Treaty of 1795. Such deposit privileges were vital to the frontier farmers who floated their goods down the Mississippi River to its mouth to await oceangoing vessels. These farmers talked of marching to New Orleans to violently get back what they deserved, an action that would have plunged the U. S. into war with Spain and France.In 1803, Jefferson sent James Monroe to join regular minister Robert R. Livingston to buy New Orleans and as much land to the east of the river for a total of $10 million, tops. Instead, Napoleon offered to sell New Orleans and the land west of it, Louisiana, for a bargain of $15 million, thereby abandoning his dream of a French North American empire. The decision to sell Louisiana was also because Napoleon needed cash to renew his war with Britain. The Louisiana Purchase was finalized on April 30, 1803. The Senate quickly approved the purchase with Jefferson’s urging, and the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.This was the biggest bargain in history averaging 3 cents per acre. 6. Analyze the cause of the War of 1812. America’s reasons for entering the War of 1812 were, â€Å"Freedom of the seas†, the U. S. wanted the right to sail and trade without fear. Possibility of land, the U. S. might gain Canada or Florida. Indian issues, Americans were still upset about British guns being giving to Indians. 7. Discuss the importance of Marbury v. Madison. The Judiciary Act, passed by the Federalists in their last days of Congressional domination in 1801, packed newly created judgeships with Federalist-backing men, so as to prolong their legacy.Chief Justice John Marshall, a cousin of Jefferson, had served at Valley Forge during the war, and he had been impressed with the drawbacks of no central authority, and thus, he became a lifelong Federalist, committed to strengthening the power of the federal government. William Marbury had been one of the â€Å"midnight judges† appointed by John Adams in his last hours as president. He had been named justice of peace for D. C. , but when Secretary of State James Madison decided to shelve the position, Marbury sued for its delivery.Marshall dismissed the case, but he said that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, thus suggesting that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of laws, judicial review. 8. Based upon the War of 1812, assess the effectiveness of the American military system. Due to widespread disunity, the War of 1812 ranks as one of America’s worst fought wars. There was not a burning national anger, li ke there was after the Chesapeake outrage; the regular army was very bad and scattered and had old, senile generals, and the offensive strategy against Canada was especially poorly conceived.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Lamarcus Adna Thompson

?2009 The most influencing person in my life would have to be the inventor of the first gravity-powered roller coaster in the United States by LaMarcus Adna Thompson, also known as the â€Å"Father of the Gravity Ride† for his Switchback Railway at Coney Island, New York City and became famous for the Scenic Railway on the Boardwalk in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1887. Thompson was born on March 8, 1848 in Jersey, Ohio. At the age of 12, he built a butter churn and an oxcart, and was a master carpenter by the age of 17. In 1866, Thompson graduated from Hillsdale College in Michigan. He worked in a wagon and carriage business then made a mint for the manufacture of seamless women’s hosiery. In the early 1880s, Thompson almost had a nervous breakdown and thus sold his share in the hosiery business and returned to his first passion of inventing. Thompson was inspired by the designs of other inventors and the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway in Pennsylvania. In 1884 in Coney Island, he had successfully built his version of the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, which he just simply called it, the Switchback Railway. Within the next four years, he had built about fifty railways all over the nation and in Europe. As more sophisticated coasters were beginning to be built, Thompson’s business was starting to go downhill. So Thompson paired up with James A. Griffiths, a designer, and produced his most famous attraction the Scenic Railway in 1887. It was a rolling tour of some elaborate artificial scenery with vividly colored tableaus, biblical scenes and flora-illuminated by lights triggered by approaching cars. This ride was the foundation of the Space Mountain of Disneyland in Anaheim, CA and other theme park journeys. Between the Switchbacks and his death on May 8, 1919, in Glen Cove, New York, Thompson had built many other scenic railways such as the masterpiece of faux-mountain and the Egyptian imagery in Venice, CA in 1910, which faced competition with his old partner James A. Griffiths. After he retired, he still patented an automatic car coupler and sold the invention to railroad car manufacturer, George Pullman. After Thompson’s death his legacy still ived through the Thompson company coasters, notably the Bobs, which was later renamed the Tornado, built at Coney Island in 1926. From then on, many coasters have been built and thought of. They are very intricate designs and have to be precise otherwise someone will get hurt. There are two types of roller coasters, steel and wooden. Steel roller coasters are known for their smooth riding usually taking the riders upside down, i n cork screws, etc. Some of the designs for the tracks are dwelling, figure 8, inverted, launched, shuttle, side friction, spinning and twister roller coasters. The most popular coasters are the floorless, flying, stand-up, suspended swing, and the Virginia Reel. LaMarcus Adna Thompson has influenced me more than I realized. My dream out of college is to become a roller coaster designer and if he had never invented the Switchback Railway I probably would be pursuing another career. I hope to be as successful as he was. I have learned to still be positive and stay focused on my goals in life now because the choices I make now will affect the way my future is played out. Like school for instance, I need to keep my grades up even though I have only one year left of high school. One bad grade could greatly decrease my chances of going to a college of my choice rather than a college I have to go to because I have no other offers. Even if Thompson almost had a nervous breakdown he still has inspired me to keep moving forward and to find comfort in the things that I find enjoyable. Yes, he did sell his part of the business but I would rather give up my part, than to bring everyone else down with me because that wouldn’t be fair to them. I understand more now than I ever did that when you fail it’s only an obstacle in your path that when you overcome it, you become even stronger than before. You become more creative and see the things in life with a totally different perspective than you would’ve thought of before. Now that I have grown to become a better person to find the good in everything I do and to pursue my dreams with my chin up high even though I know that I will get shut out every now and then. But that only means that greater things for me are to come in the mere future.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Political Rhetoric Essay

John F. Kennedy and Barack Obama both make successful attempts at addressing the thoughts, concerns, and fears of the American people in their speeches made on the Democratic platform. John F. Kennedy addresses the nation in his 1960 â€Å"Inaugural Address,† while Obama addresses Bostonians at Democratic Convention in a speech entitled â€Å"The Audacity of Hope.† Both speakers demonstrate the skilful use of the rhetorical devices ethos, logos, and pathos for the purpose of garnering support for policies and ideas thought to be important in shaping the future of the country. The appeals made by these speakers demonstrate an ability to grab the interest of the audience and engage their attention through continued appeals to their conscience as humans and Americans (Callaway). Both Obama and Kennedy succeed in employing these ethical, logical, and pathetic modes of discourse in a tone that seeks to motivate and inspire their audiences to support them in their endeavors. As a young Catholic, John F. Kennedy’s road to the white house was filled with difficulties. He lost the ballot for the Democratic candidacy in 1956, and was forced to wait four more years before he could gain the chance to run for the American Presidency. His victory over Richard Nixon in November of 1960 was very hard won, with many persons apprehensive of his campaign strategy involving making the United States a new frontier. As the country had entered an economic slump and faced the threat of communism, his job was difficult on both domestic and foreign frontiers. Yet, his policies were dynamic, and he audibly heralded the dawn of a new generation (The White House).   John F. Kennedy gave his inaugural speech on January 20, 1961 as the 35th president of the United States and the youngest one to date (Carter 36). This inaugural speech is an exemplary one in the discipline of rhetoric for it skillfully engages its audience with tone at the beginning of the speech, as he downplays the Democratic victory and calls attention to the tradition of liberty that has been the heritage of the American people (Meyer 239). He speaks not of â€Å"victory of a party but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end as well as a beginning—signifying a renewal as well as change† (Kennedy). Using well chosen diction, he declares unselfishly an eagerness to protect the hard-won freedom and a determination to act morally on the national and international scene. He makes the claim that â€Å"civility is not a sign of weakness,† thereby underscoring the importance of ethical conduct and principled behavior (Kennedy). Kennedy’s assertion of the unity of his country is one that, according to his discourse, aims to extend to the entirety of the Americas. He clarifies the context of this civility by highlighting the courage that should attend all diplomatic endeavors. This was the period of the Bay of Pigs in which Russia’s apparent aim was to establish a presence in Cuba. Kennedy declares, â€Å"Let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house† (Kennedy).   This represents an ethical claim which finds it just and right for the stronger nations in the region to stand guard on behalf of the weaker ones. Kennedy makes this statement in order to show that the United States does and should consider it its duty to safeguard the interests of the countries of Earth’s Western Hemisphere.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   John F. Kennedy also appeals to the logical sense of the entire nation in a number of ways throughout his speech (Meyer 239). For example, he refers to the diplomacy he intends to undertake with other nations and announces that logic and discussion will attend such diplomatic meetings for the discussion of arms and hostile military activity. He displays the logic of his belief in his statement that nations in conflict do well to â€Å"formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms† (Kennedy). The systematic method in which these proposed ideas are to be dealt with underscores the logical construction of the manner in which such negotiations are to proceed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The speech by Kennedy also reflects a significant appeal to the sentiments of the nation (Meyer 139). The pathetic sympathies of his audience are aroused in his appeal to the traditions of liberty upon which the nation has been built. This patriotism elicits the pride and nationalism of the audience in the hope of identifying and exploiting the connection between the militarist actions of the past and his proposal for diplomatic action in the future. He appeals for their support in his famous lines, â€Å"Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country. Ask not what America will do for you but what together we can do for the freedom of man† (Kennedy). He makes this appeal, and in doing so requests the assistance of Americans’ sense of duty, which should be â€Å"unwilling to witness or permit† any form of encroachment upon the freedom hard won by those forefathers who died on the battlefields (Kennedy). Here he indicates that the Soviet efforts to establish threatening communist connections with Cuba would not be tolerated by the United States.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kennedy also appeals to the trepidation felt by many Americans because of the stand-off developing between the United States and the Soviet Union. He refers to the state of atomic warfare in the world and speaks to the widespread fear that seemed to permeate the nation since the atomic bomb became a threat. He demonstrates his understanding of people’s concern with what he terms â€Å"the steady spread of the deadly atom† (Kennedy). He makes this appeal to the fear they feel in order to win their support for the military budget he subsequently proposes. Kennedy evokes the deep sense of endurance of the people in a â€Å"call to bear the burden of a long, twilight struggle, year in and year out† (Kennedy). This reflects the depth of the seriousness which he attributes to the threat of atomic aggression by hostile Communist states. Furthermore, the fact that this idea is given immediately following the allusion to â€Å"the graves of young Americans who answered the call to service around the globe† points to the gravity of the situation that faces the United States. Kennedy, therefore, stirs the feelings of his audience in order to garner their acceptance of the idea that the costly upkeep of the military – most likely leading to a greater tax burden – is of great necessity to the preservation of American life, liberty, and dignity. It will be seen that the effectiveness of Barack Obama’s speech utilizes techniques that are similar to those used by Kennedy. Barack Obama’s keynote speech to the National Democratic Convention was given on July 29, 2004 before he became a Senator (African-American 16). His goal in giving this speech is to promote the idea of living the American dream under the democratic candidate John Kerry. It is an example of a speech written to appeal to readers on several levels of the rhetorical scale. At this point in Obama’s life, he is a member of the Illinois state legislature and has recently announced his candidacy for the United States Senate. As a legislator, he has had exposure to the responsibility of making ethical decisions that result in the better regulation of the liberties promised in the constitution (Mack 99). He has also done work in very poor neighborhoods, and knows firsthand the problems faced by the people in those areas. The moral credibility of this speech is embodied in this central purpose: to promote and support â€Å"life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness† (Obama). He cites these qualities as being attributable to a â€Å"faith in simple dreams, an insistence on small miracles; that we can tuck in our children at night and know that they are fed and clothed and safe from harm; that we can say what we think, write what we think, without hearing a sudden knock on the door† (Obama). The knowledge Obama has gained from his diverse experience qualifies him to speak on the behalf of a candidate whose aims are drafted along the lines of enacting legislation that will improve people’s social condition. Obama also uses ethical reasoning in his charge to the American leaders to engage the governments of other nations in talks that will unite countries under the banner of their common problems rather than divide them based on conflict. He charges such leaders to encourage them to explore the areas of science that give wonder and hope, rather than those areas that terrify and promise harm. In this way, Obama appeals to the deep sense of moral character and integrity possessed by his hearers, and which he knows they hope for the person he introduces – John Kerry – to bring to his agenda as a democratic candidate for the presidency. Obama also utilizes the rhetorical device of pathos in his Democratic Convention speech. From the very beginning of his speech, his words appeal to the sentiments of his audience as he reminisces on the ancestral lines that brought him to where he now stands. He highlights how unlikely it is for him to have achieved the privilege of being in his current position, because of the lowliness of his father’s birth (Mack 101). His humility is evident in his use of the phrase â€Å"Thank you† eight times in the first two lines. He mentions the goat-herding vocation of his father, and yet contrasts this with the strength of the dreams his grandfather had for his goat-herding son. Obama appeals further to the audience’s sentiment by underlining the level of hard work to which his maternal grandfather committed himself, emphasizing his eagerness to enlist in the American military on the day that Pearl Harbor was bombed. He also does this in his reference to the variety of people who seek a land in which they call home. He says, â€Å"It’s the hope of slaves sitting around a fire singing freedom songs; the hope of immigrants setting out for distant shores; the hope of a young naval lieutenant bravely patrolling the Mekong Delta; the hope of a mill-worker’s son who dares to defy the odds; the hope of a skinny kid with a funny name who believes that America has a place for him, too† (Obama). In this way, he appeals to the patriotic nature of the audience and to highlight the right he and the diverse population have to claim this nation as their own. Barack Obama also makes a joint appeal both to the logos and pathos of the audience in his allusion to the job and health care situations in America. He says, â€Å"It is that fundamental belief: I am my brother’s keeper. I am my sister’s keeper that makes this country work,† and this represents his rousing of the conscience of the people toward a more communal type of social policy he advocates (Obama). He also demonstrates reasoning and in his treatment of specific problems, evoking a sense that justice fails where people who have worked diligently all their lives are now required to compete with teenagers for low-paying jobs. This form of appeal also comes to the fore where he mentions the hardworking father who is at a loss to figure out how he can pay a $4500 weekly bill for his sick son when he cannot afford insurance (Obama). The dismal circumstances evoke the sympathy of his hearers. He also combines logos and pathos in his mention of the health care situation. From a logical point of view, humanitarian considerations support the idea of universal health care and hard work should logically be rewarded with proper medical treatment when necessary. The tone of Obama’s address is one of patriotism and urgency. He speaks of the drive and heart of the American people underscores his point that the leader he endorses believes strongly in the ideas he has put forth. He says, â€Å"Now even as we speak, there are those who are preparing to divide us — the spin masters, the negative ad peddlers who embrace the politics of ‘anything goes.’ Well, I say to them tonight, there is not a liberal America and a conservative America — there is the United States of America† (Obama). His tone is also inspirational and motivational, and he highlights the ways in which the passion and ambition of the American people has the ability not just to make them succeed in the things to which they put their hands and minds, but also to unite them as one nation. Yet he also highlights the areas that need change, and encourages all the audience that together such goals can be achieved if the American initiative and ingenuity is employed. He exhorts his audience with his words and provocative tone to move forward by selecting the right candidate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The speeches of John F. Kennedy and Barack Obama use rhetoric as a means of constructing logical and ethical arguments that appeal also to the sentiments of their audience. Both speakers show themselves to be exceptional orators and to possess skill in rousing the spirits of the nation in support of their political campaigns. They also show themselves to be united in their efforts to earn the backing of the American people for future domestic and foreign policies. Obama appeals to the deepest and most immediate concerns of the people, and by insisting on his interest in social welfare programs, shows himself worthy of their trust and sympathies. Kennedy’s inaugural speech highlights the endeavor of a newly elected Democratic president to air the qualities of an unproven leader as being propitious for the direction the country seeks to take. Kennedy makes himself one with the people by referring to the areas in which they share ethical beliefs and logical connections. Both speakers allude to recent and older historical periods in which wars were fought and Americans died. In so doing, the speakers are able to garner support for the policies that will preserve freedom and prosperity for many gave their lives. Works Cited â€Å"An African-American Law School Professor Aims to Become the Fifth Black U.S.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Senator.† The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Vol. 43 (Spring, 2004) pp 16 – 17.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   JSTOR. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=10773711%28200421%290%3A43%3C16   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   %3AAALSPA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. Callaway, Michael. â€Å"Logos, Ethos, and Pathos.† Arizona State University. 26 January 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.public.asu.edu/~macalla/logosethospathos.html. Carter, Burnham Jr. â€Å"President Kennedy’s Inaugural Address.† College Composition and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Communication. Vol. 14 No. 1 (February, 1963) pp 36 – 40. JSTOR. 1 February 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010096X%28196302%2914%3A1%3C36%3APKIA%3   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   E2.0.CO%3B2-Q Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. â€Å"Inaugural Address.† 20 January 1061. American Rhetoric: Online    Speech Bank. 26 January 2008 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ jfkinaugural.htm. Mack, Kenneth W. â€Å"Barack Obama before He Was a Rising Political Star† The Journal of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Blacks in Higher Education. No. 45, pp 99 – 104 (Autumn, 2004). JSTOR. 1 February   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2008 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1077-3711%28200423%290%3A45%3C98% 3ABOBHWA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N. Meyer, Sam. â€Å"The John F. Kennedy Inauguration Speech: Function and Importance of Its   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ‘Address System’.† Rhetoric Society Quarterly Vol. 12 No. 4 (Autumn, 1982), pp. 239-   Ã‚  Ã‚   250. JSTOR. 1 February 2008 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0277-3945%28198223 %2912%3A4%3C239%3ATJFKIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M . Obama, Barack. â€Å"The Audacity of Hope.† 27 July 2004. American Rhetoric: Online Speech   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bank. 26 January 2008 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/convention2004/ barackobama2004dnc.htm. White House, The. â€Å"John Kennedy.† Past Presidents. Washington. Retrieved on February 18,    2008 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jk35.html Annotated Bibliography â€Å"An African-American Law School Professor Aims to Become the Fifth Black U.S. Senator.†      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Vol. 43 (Spring, 2004) pp 16 – 17.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   JSTOR. . This article from The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education appeared in the Spring 2004 edition. It is an un-authored article that talks about Barack Obama’s rise through the political ranks all the way up to running for Senator. This article will help provide background information related to Obama’s early years in the State Legislature and later on in the Senate. Blakesley, David, and Jeffrey Hoogeveen. The Brief Thompson Handbook. Ohio: Thomson   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Wadsworth, 2008. This book is a handbook used for reference in all forms of writing. It has unique sections such as MLA documentation and how to research writing critically. It served a dual purpose in my paper as it was able to help me define several key terms as well as cite all appropriate sources properly. Callaway, Michael. â€Å"Logos, Ethos, and Pathos.† Arizona State University. 26 January 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   . This site presents a helpful chart on the ethos, pathos, and logos, which clearly differentiates each of the three styles of presenting an argument.   It also presents clear definition as well as some examples from known articles written by recognized celebrities. It also gave insight into how to prepare a well-developed essay on rhetoric. Carter, Burnham Jr. â€Å"President Kennedy’s Inaugural Address.† College Composition and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Communication. Vol. 14 No. 1 (February, 1963) pp 36 – 40. JSTOR. 1 February   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2008 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010096X%28196302%2914%3A1%3   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   C36%3APKIA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q This five page article by Burnham Carter Jr. was written two years after President John F. Kennedy gave his Inaugural Address. It praises Kennedy’s words and goes on to explore why it was such a great speech. This article is very well organized and uses outsides sources to get its point across. The ideas in this article will provide a basis upon which to build further arguments concerning the effectiveness of John F. Kennedy’s speech. Clarke, Thurston. â€Å"The Inauguration of John F. Kennedy and the Speech That Changed   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   America.† The San Francisco Chronicle. 24 October, 2004. 26 January 2008     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   . This article from the San Francisco Chronicle by Thurston Clarke recounts one of the most famous speeches ever given: The Inauguration of JFK. There was a myth that the speech could have been written by JFK’s assistant, Ted Sorensen. However, in the article Thurston disproves the rumor and demonstrates how JFK was the true author of his own remarkable words. The work helps give insight into the strategic mind of John F. Kennedy, and will apply to the logical aspects of the analytic paper.. Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. â€Å"Inaugural Address.† 20 January 1061. American Rhetoric: Online      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Speech Bank. 26 January 2008   . John F Kennedy’s Inaugural Address can be found in the Online Speech Bank of the American Rhetoric website. On this specific page it has the audio, video, and text of the speech that I will be analyzing. The speech will be examined on the following areas of rhetoric: pathos, logos and ethos, and will provide the primary material to be assessed. Mack, Kenneth W. â€Å"Barack Obama before He Was a Rising Political Star† The Journal of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Blacks in Higher Education. No. 45, pp 99 – 104 (Autumn, 2004). JSTOR. 1   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   February 2008 . Kenneth W. Mack wrote this four page article for The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education in the Fall of 2004. In the article, Mack addresses his relationship with Barack Obama on both a political and personal scale. He recounts anecdotes of himself and Obama along with other important political figures to shed light on hwo deserving Obama is of his acclaim. He also analyzes the Keynote Address that Obama gave at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. This article will provide deeper insight into the Obama’s character, and will inform the main ideas presented in the analysis of his speech. Meyer, Sam. â€Å"The John F. Kennedy Inauguration Speech: Function and Importance of Its   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã¢â‚¬ËœAddress System’.† Rhetoric Society Quarterly Vol. 12 No. 4 (Autumn, 1982),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   pp. 239-250. JSTOR. 1 February 2008 . This twelve page article is an in-depth analysis on John F Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech. It explores all aspects of the speech with topics ranging from the audience to logos, pathos, and ethos. It breaks down different quotations and analyzes the content and not only the textual meaning but possible broader meanings. It will aid in the relation of the ideas presented in JFK’s speech to the context in which it was made. Obama, Barack. â€Å"The Audacity of Hope.†Ã‚   27 July 2004. American Rhetoric: Online Speech   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bank. 26 January 2008 . The American Rhetoric is a website that houses famous pieces of literature, both American and Foreign. This particular piece is a speech from the 2004 Democratic National Convention and is the Key Note Address. The speech is given by Barack Obama when he was still a member of the Illinois State Legislator. I will be examining the speech for the main elements of Rhetoric: logos, pathos and ethos. It will be used as the main source from which quotations and examples will be drawn in an analysis of the speech’s effectiveness. Ramage, John, John Bean, and June Johnson. Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings. 7th   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ed.   White Plains, NY: Longman, 2006. This is a book that revolves around the topic of arguments.   It defines argument, presents numerous argument readings over the pages, and then tackles on assisting readers into writing arguments. One of the arguments in the text is a speech by Former Attorney General John Ashcroft titled, â€Å"Testimony to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary.† Using pathos Ashcroft states that America must not be complacent and should be one-on-one in defending the nation against terrorist attacks. Another argument in the book is made by Patricia Williams in an article titled â€Å"To See or Not to See.† This article tackles the invalidity of the antiterrorism policies, especially when it comes to liberty and human rights of the minorities. The methods in which these state officials tackle these tough problems will give insight into the difficulties facing Kennedy at the time. Comparisons of his attitude with that of these contemporary leaders will help to indicate the extent to w hich his proposed policies were necessary. United Sates. Senate. Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois. 1 February 2008. This website is the homepage for Senator Barack Obama. It is a very detailed site with many subsidiary pages that include things from biographical information to his previous speeches on podcast. The homepage has an RSS feed that gives up to the minute latest news relating to the Senator. It also indicates the issues for which Obama argues and different committees with which he is associated. This source gives an idea of the Obama’s political interests and facilitates the comparison of his speech’s main points. It also gives insight into the areas in which Obama may have done (or found) research for his speech. White House, The. â€Å"John Kennedy.† Past Presidents. Washington. Retrieved on February 18,    2008 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jk35.html This article is a biography of John F. Kennedy, detailing his birth, tour in Japan, road to the White House and subsequent assassination while in office. It also tells of other accomplishments, the Bay of Pigs campaign, and the overall mission that he had in store for the country. It is useful as a source of general background information concerning Kennedy.