Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Common Numbering Systems Used in Genealogy

Common Numbering Systems Used in Genealogy Have you ever been elated at the discovery of a compiled family history for your ancestors, only to find yourself confused by all of the numbers and what they mean? Family lineages presented in text, rather than in graphical format, require an organizational system to allow the user to easily follow lines down through descendants or back toward the original ancestors. These standard numbering systems are used to show relationships between generations in a family tree. In other words, who is connected to whom. When numbering your genealogy, it is best to adopt a well-established system that is easily interpreted. Even if youre using a genealogy software program to compile your family history, it is still important to understand the differences and formats of the most widely-used numbering systems. If you plan to publish your family history, genealogical quarterlies, magazines and other publications may require a specific format. Or a friend may send you a pedigree chart which uses one of these numbering systems. It isnt necessarily important to learn the ins and outs of every numbering system, but it helps to have at least a general understanding. Common Genealogical Numbering Systems While genealogy numbering systems vary in their organization, they all have in common the practice of identifying individuals and their relationships through a specific numbering sequence. Most numbering systems are used to display descendants of a given ancestor, while one, the ahnentafel, is used to display the ancestors of an individual. Ahnentafel - From a German word meaning ancestor table, an ahnentafel is an ancestor based numbering system. Good for presenting a lot of information in a compact format, and the most popular numbering system for ascending genealogies. Register Numbering System - Based on the numbering system used by the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, the register system is one of several options for numbering descendant reports. NGSQ Numbering System - Sometimes referred to as the Modified Register System from which it was adapted and modernized, this popular descendant numbering system is used in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly and in many other family history publications. Henry Numbering System - Yet another descendant numbering system, the Henry System is named after Reginald Buchanan Henry, who used it in his Genealogies of the Families of the Presidents. published in 1935. This system is less often used than the Register and NGSQ systems, and is not accepted for certification projects or by most genealogical publications.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Conflict in Maus ll essays

Conflict in Maus ll essays The controversial graphic novel, Maus II is wrought with conflict. The characters are all at odds with each other, and while their arguments might seem petty, there are underlying themes with important messages. For example, the conflict between Art and his father Vladek represents the theme of a quest for understanding. Art has trouble understanding what his father went through and how he was affected, and Vladek has trouble understanding that his son is living in a new age, away from the Holocaust and his terrible past. Vladek and his son Art are from different times and places, and so they are constantly arguing and bickering. The inciting incident of this conflict in Maus II is when Vladek fakes a heart attack to get Art to come visit him. Immediately, the fact that Vladek needed to pretend to be dying just to get his son to visit him stands out as an obvious sign of an unhealthy relationship, at best. From this point on, it becomes increasingly apparent that there is a major conflict between father and son. Throughout the novel, Art tries, if grudgingly, to ease the tension that is ever present in his relationship with his father. After the false alarm of Vladeks heart attack, Art reluctantly stays with his father, to make sure that he can take care of himself. Though this act was in a sense an act of compassion and good will, it turns out to be a mistake. Vladek is a miserable roommate, especially for a married couple. Living with him, even for just a night, tries Arts already frayed patience. The conflict increases further when Vladek tries to sell half-eaten goods back to the market. Art does not understand his fathers interminable need to save money, as he never experienced anything similar to the Holocaust. Also, when they pick up a black hitchhiker, Art does not understand Vladeks racist views, since Vladek suffered so much due to racism. The conflict comes to a head when Art finds that...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Individualsm and collectivism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Individualsm and collectivism - Assignment Example Collectivism advocates for the importance of social groups always having cohesion. Therefore collectivists will focus mainly on the society or the nation or even the community and not on individuals (Donohue, 1995, p.7). In the United States, individualism and collectivism can be seen in many ways. Individualism can be dated back to the 17th and 18th century in United States. A perfect event of individualism in American history was the frontier. A person was believed to fail or to succeed based on their own individual effort. Many people actually died during this period trying to prove to them that they can be individualists in the frontier farms and the forests. Certain people like Franklin and Washington succeeded based on their own intelligence and ambition and they are perfect examples of individualism (Kim, 1994, p.23). Collectivism is something that was mainly practiced in United States after the world war. Events like United States gaining its independence from Europe in 1776 also shows that individualism worked really well for America. Today, United States wants to be a bigger part of something by practicing collectivism. An event of collectivism in United States was the political system whi ch happened to be representative democracy. In such an event when a president is elected by the majority the people are all expected to embrace their new leader. An ideal case in point would be the choice of Barack Obama as the president in 2012. The totality of the votes casted in the college showed the collectivism of the people in the election of the president (Kitayama, & Cohen, 2007, p.259). In the real world experience some people believe that individual work is what will make them successful while others believe working collectively in a society is what will bring about success. These two aspects help one understand the cultural differences of people. In individualist culture they put the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Breast Cancer - Research Paper Example The Genesis of a Cancer Cell A normal cell turns into a cancer cell because of one or more mutations in its DNA which can be inherited or acquired. Mutation is sudden abrupt changes that occur in the genetic material i.e. the DNA of the cell. This genetic material is facilitated by various agents called mutagens. Mutagens can be either physical agents such as UV radiations, X-rays etc. or they could be some chemical agents which are capable of producing changes in the cell by reacting with cellular macromolecules. These chemical agents form bond with the cellular macromolecules, thereby alter their normal structures. If they combine with the genetic material, the peptide formation is affected. Thus, these mutagenic agents affect the normal well being of the cell and when such a defective cell replicates the cellular modification is also passed on. These cellular alterations may lead to cancer, where the carcinogenic agents (cancer causing) are capable of altering the cell division le ading to the uncontrolled proliferation of the cell (Alberts, 2007; Chemical Carcinogens). ... These epigenetic factors do not produce cancer by themselves but enhances the likelihood of genetic mutation(s) resulting in cancer (Katzang et al., 2009). These genetic changes are categorized as - A. The activation of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes: Proto-oncogenes are the normal genes present in the cells and are responsible for controlling cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis. A triggering factor such as a virus or exposure to any carcinogen brings malignant changes in the cell. B. The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: A cell has the mechanism to protect itself from uncontrolled proliferation and tumor formation due to expression of genes called tumor suppressor genes. These genes possess the ability to suppress malignant changes and are also referred as antioncogenes. Mutation in proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes results in the proliferation of tumor. Thus, a loss of function of tumor suppressor genes can be the critical event in carcinogenesis (Rang et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009). More than 30 tumor suppressor genes as well as more than 100 dominant oncogenes have been found to be associated with various types of cancers (Rang et al., 2007). Characteristics of Cancer cells The genetic basis of cancer has been revealed through numerous animal models. The Cancer Genome Atlas aims at methodically differentiating the configurational source of cancer, through recognition of the genomic mutations linked with every cancer form. A corresponding progress and description forms the basis of understanding growth and external appearance of the cancer or tumor called the phenotype of the cancer, is essential for

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Student Profile Essay Example for Free

Student Profile Essay My name is FathiyaWaithera. I am from Kenya and living in the United States to study nursing at a community college. I received a scholarship from the Nurses for Africa program which requires me to return to Africa to provide health care after graduation (Dain, 2009). The rules about arriving in the U. S. are very strict. The scholarship advisors provided a list of the documents I would need and what was expected of me on arrival. I had to remember where to report and had to make sure I had my documents with me at all times. When I arrived, I presented my passport, the I-20 form, the I-94 Arrival-Departure form, and a customs declaration form. The officer inspected all my documents and asked me to state the reason I wished to enter the country. I remembered to tell the officer that I plan to be a student andprovided the name of the college and where it is located. After the inspection the officer stamped the I-20 form and the Arrival –Departure form (F/M/J Nonimmigrants). An International Student Services (ISS) staff member from the collegepicked me up at the airport and drove me to the campus. She stayed to help me find my room in the dormitories. After she left, Iunpacked and waited to meet my room mate. She was from Denmark and I supposed we were placed together because she was also an international student. She spoke English and I spoke English but it didn’t seem like the same language to me. We tried to make the best of it, but it was almost impossible to communicate. The weekend before classes began, the dormitory staff held orientation events for the students. There was a cook out, some social activitiesand a band. I couldn’t understand the language, the food was inedible and I was too embarrassed about my English to take part in the activities. I came to the U. S. believing I was very good at English. I made good grades in this subject and was surprised to find that I couldn’t communicate in the U. S. The other students used so many slang words that it took a long time for me to gather a general meaning and then I couldn’t put together a response. By the time classes began, I was tired, scared, and hungry. The classroom was confusing to me. Some students came to class late and interrupted the professor; others were noisy and kept up their conversations after the professor arrived. The professor reviewed a syllabus and spoke at length about academic integrity. I was unable to understand much of what she said. They all spoke so fast, spoke at the same time and used terms I was unfamiliar with. After attending a full day of classes, I returned to my room. I was tired and hungry but the thought of eating something from the cafeteria made me feel sick. The food looked, smelled and tasted horrible. I would have done anything to eat something prepared by my mother. I hadn’t been able to sleep since arriving in the U. S. The dormitory was noisy and although I was used to a lot of people and a lot of noise at home, this was a different type of noise and I couldn’t shut it out. My roommate seemed like a nice person but it was so difficult to communicate that we didn’t really try. I was homesick and lonely. My classes were very hard at first. I wasn’t used to speaking up in class or asking questions. The other students were so casual and seemed disrespectful when addressing the professors. Many of the assignments required me to work in groups. I was embarrassed about my English when I had to ask someone to repeat what they said or explain what they meant. I had to explain how my name is pronounced over and over. Most of the time, the other students were kind and patient with me, but I knew I made the assignment more difficult for the group. Keeping my grades up, learning the course content, and attending class were my highest priorities. To maintain my visa status, I was required to be a full-time student each semester. That meant that I couldn’t drop a class even if I wasn’t doing well. It also meant that I had to attend class, no matter how I felt and I didn’t feel well. I had lost some weight because I couldn’t eat the food and still wasn’t sleeping well. My life was made up of studying, going to class, studying, and more class. I wrote letters to my family and indulged in an occasional phone call, but it was important that my family believe that I was successful and doing well at school to about how miserable I felt. A research paper was required in one of my classes. Because I was not familiar with this type of project, I tried to find someone to tutor me in this area. I looked in the resource package I received at the orientation but couldn’t find anything about tutoring or anythingabout the library. I asked the professor and she said to go to the LRC. I didn’t know what the LRC was and was too embarrassed to tell her. I couldn’t find the LRC and was feeling nervous about completing the project on time. I finally went to see the International Student advisor. He told me that the LRC is actually the library and showed me where to find it. When the professor returned my paper there were questions about resources and citations but my grade was still a B, so I assumed that I was doing fine. For the next paper, I followed the same process. I found something related to the topic, read about it and wrote a paper. This time, when I received my graded paper, this time a C, the professor again wrote questions and comments about resources and citations and also wrote about academic integrity. I understood that academic integrity was about being dishonest and could be about cheating but I didn’t see the connection between hercomments and my paper. When I received the third graded paper, the professor gave me a failing grade and said that I should meet with her to discuss plagiarism. I was ashamed and afraid that I would lose my scholarship. I went to see the International Student Services advisor to show him my papers and the professor’s comments. He said would he ask the professor if he could go to the meeting with me andrecommended a tutor for me so I could learn how to write a research paper. I was grateful to have the help butalso humiliated. I had been a top student and had always received praise for my work. The professor approved my advisor’s request to attend the meeting. He told my professor about my academic historyand how classes are conducted in Kenya. He told her that in Kenya the professor lectured,the students took notes and either passed or failed an exam. They did not ask questions or work in groups outside of class. He explained that I had no experience with writing research papers or independent study but I was a good student and prepared to learn to study in an U. S. classroom. The professor tried to explain what was wrong with the papers I turned in. I still didn’t truly understand and still didn’t understand why the first paper received the grade B, if the problems were so serious. My advisor introduced me to a tutor from the FACET Center. I had seen the name, FACET, in the resource documents but didn’t understand that it had some association with tutoring. Why wasn’t it called the Tutoring Center? This tutor worked with several international students and suggested that we create a study group. Our group consisted of me, two women from Malaysia and three menfrom Korea. At first, the tutoring sessions were difficult due to the language barriers and the subject matter. Later we began to feel morecomfortable with each other and we all liked the tutor. He not only helped us with our homework, but explained things about the U. S. , American Englishand the college. Each time we met, I felt more confident about asking questions. The tutor kept encouraging us to join the International Student Support Coalition. He said it was a student organization that would help us get to know other students and feel more comfortablein college and in the U. S. The tutor said that he thought it might be easier for a person speaking English as a new language to take math classes because mathematics are universal and quick mental calculations can be done in a person’s native language. He said that for international students, a class like psychology or history slows them down because they have to receive the information, transfer it to the brain, calculate the answer,transfer it back to English and then speak. It felt great to have someone from the U. S. understand what I was going through. He recommended that we enroll in math for the next semester to build confidence in our academic abilities. I thought this was a good idea because I had been good at math in secondary school so I planned to focus on math in my second semester. The International Student Services Offices sent us a monthly newsletter. The newsletter contained information about immigration, SEVIS requirements, and theInternational Student Support Coalition (ISSC) and transfer trips to area universities. Each time I saw the ISSC students, I wanted to be a part of what they were doing but didn’t know how to go about it. My ISS advisor had asked me several times if I was interested but each time I said that my studies were so demanding that I wouldn’t have time to participate. Later in my first semester, my advisor asked me if I would assist him with a presentation for ISSC about African international students. I was flattered and although I agreed to assist, I doubted my ability to offer something of value to these students who seemed so confident. I worked with my ISS advisor to develop the presentation. I told him about my home and family and he looked up information about Kenya to support my story and we both contributed pictures. When the day came to present, I was very nervous and only followed through because I didn’t want to let my advisor down. During the first ISSC meeting I attended, the group presented their goals as a college student organization. They asked for help to work for the success of all college international students in ddeveloping scholarship/funding ideas, becoming recognized for efforts and achievements college-wide, and creating a social support network. The organization president said that one of their visions is to serve not only as a resource for international students, but also as a resource to the college in general. He said that he believes an international person can open up a lot of different mindsets in thinking about issues. I was surprised to see how confident they felt about the importance of their place in this environment. Getting involved in a club for international students has been a good way to start learning about resources and creating a network of support. I met a lot of other students and my English has improved. I learned about a conversation club through ISSC and joined. People in the community host the clubs in their homes. Each person brings a dish, usually something from their home country. The group has dinner together and spendsthe meeting time conversing in English. I’m starting to make friends and although I’m still homesick, I don’t feel as lonely. My ISS advisor told me that he is expecting two women from Africa next semester. Both will be studying in the U. S. as part of the Nurses for Africa program. Although they are not from Kenya, one is from Ghana and one is from Nigeria, I will try to help them adjust to life in the U. S. by inviting them to be a part of ISSC, and providing information even if they don’t’ ask. I will tell them what the FACET Center is and that the LRC is really the library and to take a math class first! Section II – Understandings and Perspectives She may have experienced a more positive adjustment if the following supports had been in place: reassurance and support for the her personal self-esteem, time needed to adjust, information about adjustment patterns and the symptoms of culture shock, the understanding that success at home does not guarantee a successful adjustment in a new culture, and information about the U. S. (Pederson, 1991). Individual approaches, personal characteristics and skill level influence theability to successfully adjust. The ability to successfully communicate, organize, manage stress, exercise patience, tolerance, courtesy and flexibility are conduciveto adjustment. Perfectionism, inflexibility, obstinacy, ethnocentrism, dependent anxiety and self-centered behavior are traits that are related negatively to adjustment (Hannigan, 1990). One’s cultures of origin (or cultural backgrounds) mediate the importance attached to attending college and earning a college degree. Knowledge of a student’s cultures of origin and the cultures of immersion is needed to understand a student’s ability to successfully negotiate the institution’s milieu. The probability of persistence is inversely related to the cultural distance between a student’s culture(s of origin and cultures of immersion. Students who traverse a long cultural distance must be acclimated to dominant cultures of immersion or join one or more enclaves. The amount of time a student spends in one’s cultures of origin after matriculating is positively related to cultural stress and reduces the chances they will persist. The likelihood a student will persist is related to the extensity and intensity of one’s sociocultural connections to the academic program and to affinity groups. Students who belong to one or more enclaves in the cultures of immersion are more likely to persist, especially if group members value achievement and persistence. Fathiya’s commitment to her goals, the importance her family attached to her education, the importance of the vocation she would bring back to Kenyasupport proposals one and two. Her interaction with the International Student Support Coalition and the conversation club relate to proposals three, five and eight. Welcoming new international nursing students relate to proposal seven. I did not successfully complete my initial college experience and I can see how the cultural propositions relate. I did not have academic and career goals so I wasn’t invested in college. My parents did not have a strong commitment to my college education. My experience relates to proposals one and two. Lack of involvement in a degree program relates to proposals seven and eight. Section III Educatefaculty and staff about the need to learn about a student’s culture of origin. References Dain, A. Nurses for Africa. † Medill Reports (2009). http://www. medill. northwestern. edu/medill. Web. Oct. 2009. Hannigan, T. P. (1990). Traits, attitudes, and skills that are related to intercultural effectiveness and their implications for cross-cultural training: A review of literature. International Journal of Intercultural relations, 14, 89-111. http://online. culturegrams. com/world/world_country. php? contid=1wmn=Africacid=85cn=Kenya Seidman, A. , (Ed. ) (2005). College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success, Westport, CT: Praeger Series on Higher Education.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Logic, Perception, and Enculturation Essay -- The Nature of Logic

Think about it. How important is thinking? Americans spend all of their day thinking and misthinking of multiple decisions and ideas. Thinking is a very important process of how our thoughts, when transferred verbally or written on paper, can produce a clearer understanding of our views. The nature of logic as it relates to critical thinking, and my perceptual process have been influenced through sources of enculturation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The nature of logic as understood is when you have a situation, belief, tradition, etc. that is examined and reviewed in great detail to discover the reasoning behind a behavior. Critical thinking as I understand it is when you view a situation in multiple ways to get a accurate answer or results. The nature of logic relates to critical thinking by examining the situation and thoughts to get a clearer decision of possible outcomes, or reasoning. For instance, before heading to work you watch the news and their morning traffic update for possible accidents and road closures because you have an hour commute. On this particular morning you hear the traffic reporter mention that your daily route to work has been closed due to a huge tractor-trailer accident. Logically, and using critical thinking you are able to come up with two alternate routes for getting to work on time. Using further logic and critical thinking you watch the news for further traffic details to mak e a final decision on one of two alternate choices. You hear that one of your choic...

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Communication in Health, Social Care Essay

1.Understand why communication is important in the work setting 1.1 Identify the different reason people communicate Good communication skills are so important within a health and social care environment because we communicate with others all the time. Effective communication helps us better understand a person or situation, enables us to resolve differences, build trust and respect, and create environments where creative ideas, problem solving, affection, and caring can flourish. Different reasons why people communicate†¢ Communication is a tool with which influence can be exercised on others.†¢ Communication can be used to bring out changes in attitudes, motivate people and establish and maintain relationships.†¢ Communication is essential for seeking and providing information.†¢ We communicate to express our emotions like courage or fear, joy or sorrow, satisfaction or disappointment with appropriate gestures and words.†¢ Communication is important for dev eloping positive relationships with children, young people and their families, colleagues and other professionals.†¢ Communication allows ideas to be conveyed clearly and succinctly.†¢ It is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in ways that each gains a common understanding of the message. Read more: Identify four different reasons why people communicate  essay The way in which you communicate will be different depending on the person with whom you are communicating and the purpose of the communication. We have formal and informal communication Formal communication tends to start with a greeting such as ‘Good afternoon. How are you feeling today?’ It can be used to show respect for others. Formal conversation is often used when a professional person, such as a health or social care worker, speaks to someone using a service. It is clear, correct and avoids misunderstanding. Communication with a manager is usually formal. A manager is usually more distant from those they manage so that if they need to, for example, issue a formal warning to someone, it is less awkward for both parties than if they are friends. Informal communication (often used between people who know each other well, like friends and family) is more likely to start with ‘Hi, how are you?’ and allows for more variety according to the area someone lives in. For example, in some places it is common for people to call other people ‘Love’ even if they have only just met them. People usually communicate more informally with friends, including those they work closely with on a day-to-day basis.   1.2 explain how effective communication affects all aspect of the learner’s work Effective communication is more than just talking, and is essential for the well-being of the individuals you care for. It includes body language, gestures, facial expressions, positioning and appearance. It is important to be aware of non-verbal communication when interacting with your individuals at work. When communicating with a deaf person always make sure of eye contact and the client then may be able to lip read rai se your voice and speak clearly to the client. Always be aware of their level of understanding and act accordingly. It is important to give client time to communicate as not everyone communicates in the same way and care assistant must make sure that communicate in a way that is most suitable for them. Some patient may have problem with correct pronunciation and then care assistant should allow appropriate length of time to let them communicate. It also important to use the service user preferred form of communication as is care assistant responsibility to make sure that communication skills and methods should meet the needs of individuals. Beside if the individuals can communicate in their preferred method the person is more likely to express their needs. It is important to adapt how we communicate as sometimes the chosen method of communication may turn out not sufficient enough for example if a person may have difficulties in expressing himself/herself verbally which my cause frustration it may be necessary to use non-verbal c ommunication or pictures to get the meaning across correctly Effective communication is a main part of the work that happens in care settings. You will need to develop a range of communication skills and be able to use them effectively to carry out the different aspects of your work role. You will need to be able to communicate effectively with service users, their relatives and your colleagues, as well as colleagues from other outside services . The key to better communication is knowing the communication cycle and being able to send and revive message appropriately. 1.3 explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them When you are observing an individuals reactions while communicating it’s important to pay attention to their facial and bodily reactions because only about 70-80% of communication is verbal, meaning that you are going to miss out on a large part of communication if you are not paying attention to peoples facial and bodily reactions. When you look at a person’s facial expression, much of what you will see will be in the eyes, but the eyebrows and mouth also contribute. Notice whether someone is looking at you, or at the floor, or at a point over your shoulder. Lack of eye contact should give a first indication that all may not be well. It may be that they are not feeling confident. They may be unhappy, or feel uneasy about talking to you. You will need to follow this up. It is also important how the person is sitting. Are they relaxed and comfortable, sitting well back in the chair, or tense and perched on the edge of the seat? Are they slumped in the chair with their head down? Posture can indicate a great deal about how somebody is feeling. People who are feeling well and cheerful tend to hold their heads up, and sit in a relaxed and comfortable way. Someone who is tense and nervous, who feels unsure and worried, is likely to reflect this in the way they sit or stand. Observe hands and gestures carefully. Someone twisting their hands, or playing with hair or clothes, is displaying tension and worry. Frequent little shrugs of the shoulders or spreading of the hands may indicate a feeling of helplessness or hopelessness. In communicating with individuals always follow those steps †¢ Maintain eye contact with the person you are talking to, although you should avoid staring at them. Looking away occasionally is normal, but if you find yourself looking around the room, or watching others, then you are failing to give people the attention they deserve. †¢ Be aware of what you are doing and try to think why you are losing attention. †¢Sit where you can be easily seen. †¢Sit a comfortable distance away – not so far that any sense of closeness is lost, but not so close that you occupy their personal space. †¢Show by your gestures that you are listening and interested in what they are saying. †¢Use touch to communicate your caring and concern if appropriate. Many individuals find it comforting to have their hand held or stroked, or to have an arm around their shoulders. †¢Be aware of a person’s body language, which should tell you if they find touch acceptable or not. †¢Always consider the situation if you are unsure about what is acceptable in another culture and do not use touch as a method of communication until you are sure that it will be acceptable. †¢Think about age and gender in relation to touch. An older woman may be happy to have her hand held by a female carer, but may be uncomfortable with such a response from a man. †¢Ensure that you are touching someone because you think it will be a com fort, and not because you feel helpless and cannot think of anything to say. 2.Be able to meet communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals 2.1 show how to find out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences Health and social care staff need to find ways of encouraging service users to express their feelings and to talk about how they wish to be treated, as well as to say what they like and dislike. We can find out an individual’s preferred communication methods by: asking the services user , reading their care plan, ask relatives, ask colleagues, medical notes etc. People have a wide range of communication needs, which involve the consideration of many different factors such as: †¢sensory ability †¢cultural background †¢language †¢self-confidence †¢level of learning ability †¢physical ability. Some people may have high support needs, and may not communicate verbally. In these situations it will be necessary to use alternative methods of communication, such as signs and symbols . As a professional care worker , it is our responsibility to make sure that communication skills meet the needs of the people we support. We should not expect people to adjust their communication to fit in with us. Examples of special communication needs: hearing impaired people make sure that your face can be seen clearly face the light and the person you are speaking to at all times speak clearly and slowly ,repeat and rephrase if necessary minimise background noise   use your eyes, facial expressions and gestures to communicate,where appropriate do not be tempted to shout into a person’s ear or hearing aid visually-impaired people speak in the same way as you would to a sighted person – not louder or more slowly! Say who you are in your greeting as your voice won’t necessarily be recognised even if you have met the person before

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Psychology – Biological Explanation of Eating Disorders

Psychology Essay The biological approach suggests that AN is due a physical cause, suggesting it could be due to something within the body or brain; such as hypothalamus dysfunction or an imbalance of neurotransmitters. The hypothalamus dysfunction theory would suggest that animals have a â€Å"set weight† which is correct for their body, if this weight should increase or decrease then the body should make adjustments to regulate food intake to their â€Å"set weight†.The hypothalamus is thought to have quite a lot of control over our eating behaviour, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is considered to be the feeding switch that makes an individual begin to feed whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is the satiety switch that makes an individual stop feeding. Garfinkel and Gardner (1982) suggested that a disturbed hypothalamus may be the cause of AN, they proposed that any disturbance could lead to either the LH or VMH to be constantly activated.In order to explain AN it is most likely that when the LH is damaged and that the individual never receives a signal (feeling hungry) to begin feeding, if the VMH were damaged then the individual would receive a constant signal to eat so they would never stop feeding. This supports the idea that AN might have a biological explanation, specifically brain dysfunction.Anand and Brobeck conducted an experiment involving the rats, they found that if the LH was damaged it could lead to aphagia (this is a failure to eat when hungry), this provides support for the idea that damage to the hypothalamus can lead to reduced eating which is support for the biological approach of AN. However, there are some concerns with this as the test was conducted with the use of animals so it’s hard to generalise the findings to humans.This is because humans and animals are biologically different so it’s hard to know if humans would respond in the same way if their LH was damaged. Additional research has shown us th at when the VMH in rats is stimulated that it stops feeding, which again supports the suggestion that possible over activation of the VMH could result in reduced feeding. This research would also support the biological explanation of AN as if an individual has damage to their hypothalamus then it could result in reduced feeding which would then result in dramatic weight loss, as seen in sufferers of AN.However, this theory is reductionist as it suggests that the only explanation of AN is a biological reason, and it ignores other factors; like things such as stress or sexual abuse which can both lead to AN. Another biological explanation of AN would be that there is an imbalance of serotonin, which is usually associated with depression and anxiety; as disturbed levels of serotonin have been found in AN sufferers.It is also likely that eating disorders arise due to high levels of anxiety which is linked with high levels of serotonin in the body. Bailer et al (1970) compared serotonin activity in recovering anorexia suffers and healthy controls. They found significantly higher activity in the women that were recovering from anorexia, the highest levels found in those women with the highest anxiety levels. This also provides support for AN having a biological cause, in this case an imbalance of neurotransmitters.However, it’s difficult to establish cause and effect in Bailer’s research, this is because the women studied were already recovering from an eating disorder and so it’s impossible to know whether the imbalance of serotonin was the cause of the women’s AN or whether the AN causes an imbalance of serotonin, so it’s hard to know whether or not there is a biological cause of AN with these findings. In addition to this the research is also gender biased, in this case it’s alpha biased as only women were used in this study but it’s generalising the study to men as well. Bailer’s research also raises the de bate of determinism vs. ree will. The biological approach is deterministic so if an individual has an imbalance of serotonin they will then develop an eating disorder, however this is ignoring our free will as an individual that exercises regularly will over their eating; this is noted in individuals who suffer from anxiety but don’t develop AN. Finally there is the evolutionary approach which suggests that all our behaviours are adaptive, which means that the reason we do certain things is to help us survive in a certain way; according to this theory AN is a behaviour which helps them survive.The evolutionary approach focuses on our ancestors, when weight loss and eating disorders weren’t a consideration and any weight loss would be a lack of food rather than a desire for â€Å"thinness†. Usually when an individual begins to love weight physiological mechanisms activate in order to conserve energy and increase desires for food, however it would not have been ad aptive for our ancestors to feel hunger as there may not have been much food available to them, so instead it would be adaptive to â€Å"switch off† the desire so that they could then find food; in order to help our survival.Therefore many characteristics of AN can be considered adaptive to enable our ancestors to move to areas where there was more food rather than being preoccupied by looking for food in their current location. However, this theory doesn’t explain the differences of AN between genders, as girls are more affected by AN than boys; so if the behaviour was adapted then both men and women would be equally effected by this as both genders would have had to search for more food in other areas.An alternative approach to explaining how AN would come from the behaviour approach, which suggests AN is the result of learning rather than a biological explanation. This approach suggests that individuals suffer from AN because of reinforcement, so they have witnessed slim people (who become their role models) being rewarded for their behaviour so they imitate their behaviour in expectation of the same reward.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Abstraction of Love essays

Abstraction of Love essays In the symposium, Plato discusses the many strong meanings of love through the conversation of characters at a symposium, or dinner party, in which the guests take turns on stating their views on love. Before the discussions begin the guests eat and afterward they begin the conversation. Before the speeches are given there are a few statements regarding drinking alcohol. The guests say they shouldnt drink heavily but in fact most of the guest if not all already have consumed a large amount of alcohol. So we could come to the conclusion that most of the speeches are given by people who are drunk. The views expressed about love in the novel are in many ways controversial and could be strongly argued in many ways. I believe that love was heavily treasured in the time period of the symposium and that today love is many times misused and has no real value to many people. The first speaker is Phaedrus and his main focus was that love is extremely old. He refers to love as a God and says that the God of love is one of the oldest Gods. As long as humans have walked the planet there had to have been some form of love in order for humans to have evolved. Another important statement made by Phaedrus is that love brings out the best virtues in people. In todays society love can either bring out the best virtues in people or the worst. Phaedrus also says that the god of love never received enough credit or praise from any poets. He states this in the quote, How could people pay attention to such trifles and never, not even once, write proper hymn to love? (Line 177c) Since love is a big part of all our lives it should be credited enormously and this is why everyone in the Symposium is giving their opinions on it. Phaedrus believes that love is inspiring, because it brings out virtuous qualities. Love is the bases of all other emotions and feelings that peo ple have. Because of love there is jealousy, broken hearts, hatre...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

DAUGHTERS OF THE MOON essays

DAUGHTERS OF THE MOON essays Daughters of the Moon: Goddess of the Night is a wonderful book for anyone who is looking for something mystical and exciting to read. I highly recommend this book to everyone, especially teenage girls who are looking for an excellent book with real-life teenage heroines in it. This book helps you to think in a whole different way. It keeps you on the edge of your seat and keeps you wanting more. It is book number one in the Daughters of the Moon series. Vannesa, Catty, Serena, and Jimena seem like regular, ordinary high schoolers living in sunny Los Angeles. They are... except for one little thing. Each of them has a unique secret. Vannesa can become invisible. Catty travels back in time. Serena reads minds, and Jimena has premonitions. All Vannesa Cleveland ever wanted in life was to be able to do regular, ordinary things like most teenagers. There's only one small setback keeping her from that goal: She can become invisble. From a young age, Vannesa and her best friend, Catty, knew that they were different from everyone else. They both discovered at the same time that they had special abilities, or gifts, that made them different from everyone else. Vannesa discovered she could become invisible and Catty discovered that she could travel back into time. To add to all that drama, Catty and Vannesa both have the exact same moon-shaped amulet since they were born. Catty fully accepts that she is different from everyone else whereas Vannesa has a much harder time accepting that she has this very unique and rare gift. Vannesa believes that if anyone was to find out about her gift, that she would be considered a freak. Catty uses her power to her own advantage and begins teaching herself how to control it. Vannesa, on the other hand, makes no effort whatsoever to begin to use her power or even learn how to control it. Vannesa tries to lead a pretty average life. She tries her best to do normal...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Regression and Forecast of M&A Transactions in the UK Essay

Regression and Forecast of M&A Transactions in the UK - Essay Example 111). Despite the many benefits that accrue to acquisition as a growth strategy, the is significant diversity in the rate of acquisitions between different countries and different regions from across the world. The consequent disparity in the world’s acquisitions has necessitated the investigation into the predictors of this variable in this study, and hence its choice as the dependent variable. Beckeinsten examined the acquisition of firms based on the micro-economic factors that influence acquisition behaviors (26). In his study, economic indicators such as GDP growth, interest rates and stock market index were tested through a series methodology. His findings were that acquisition activity inversely correlate with economic growth. In view of the findings from different empirical studies with respect to the potential predictors of acquisitions, it is crystal clear that the relationship between acquisition activities and the tested economic indicators is not only mixed but al so unpredictable. The complexity, therefore, behind prediction of acquisition activities inspired the researcher of this study to investigate it further. . Figure 1: Rate of acquisition growth (1970-2012): the dependent variable. (Data obtained from U.K office of national statistics) Figure 1 shows the graph of acquisition growth rate from 1970 to 2012. ... The wave of acquisitions is characterized by ups and downs, a pattern that can be associated with economic cyclical patterns. If we can attribute this patter to economic cyclical patterns, then it seems there were major recessions in 1975, 1992 and 2010 and major expansions during 1973, 1978, 1988, 1994, 1999 and 2005. During an economic expansion, the rate of growth of acquisitions seems to increase significantly while the opposite happens during economic recessions. To link these economic cycles to the earlier discussed macroeconomic variables; that is, stock price, market price and GDP, it can be argued that all the three variables move in a positive direction with economic expansion as well as in a positive direction with economic recession. During the time of economic expansion, the wealth of the shareholders tends to grow hence stimulating acquisitions. Increased level of economic activities is also expected to boost GDP growth rate, which sends positive signal to companies enc ouraging them to merge. Furthermore, changes in stock prices affect the financial abilities of companies hence encouraging or discouraging them to merge. During the late 1980s the acquisitions seem to have flourished significantly due to the possible economic boom and a surge in the stock market. Nevertheless, the patterns exhibited in this graph are highly unpredictable and it would be of interest for economist to examine if there is a possibility of negatively linking these waves to important financial activities, which can raise concern over the negative impacts of acquisitions on the economy. Part II Equation: Acquisition_growth = growth_of_market_value + growth_of_ordinary_share price + growth_of_gdp + c Discussion of the model Gross

Friday, November 1, 2019

Q3-4-5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Q3-4-5 - Essay Example Industry partnerships also come in shape when organizations are socially robust, having a strong backbone of top executives with respect to size, presence and connections (Kathleen M. Eisenhardt & Claudia Bird Schoonhoven, 1996). To be specific, there are three major aspects of partnerships: foundation, formation, and structural preferences. The ‘foundation’ for partnership implies to the likelihood of organizations to add value to the overall business by their shared resources. When we say ‘formations’, it refers to properties such as limitation of convenience and commutability. By structural preferences we mean the types of ventures, which can be equity joint ventures, minority equity alliances, bilateral contract-based alliances, and unilateral contract-based alliances (T. K. Das & Bing-Sheng Teng, 2000). Strategic business partnerships enable organizations to achieve competitive advantage through access to shared resources. These shared resources may be based on potential markets, technology, capital, or human resources. As organizations have to input less individually, their goals are more focused thus leading to improved performance. Partnering organizations share their limited resources and business responsibilities as per the availability and expertise to expedite the process. It’s best to focus one’s resources on what they do the best and partner for the rest. Mostly those companies agree to work together which have same goal but lack in certain areas, let it be budgets, human resources, or technical expertise yet having same set of goals or share same purpose of existence. A research company Trendsetter Barometer, PWC states that â€Å"nearly 2/3 of fast-growing companies are involves in strategic alliances. In average, each fast-growing company is engaged in 5 different types of strategic alliances may it be related to joint marketing & promotion, joint selling or distribution, technology licenses,