Saturday, August 31, 2019

Why Do People Use Drugs?

PSY215: DRUGS AND DEPENDENCY ESSAY ONE WHY DO PEOPLE USE DRUGS? LACHLAN SLOAN 30790798 Throughout history, people have used different kinds of drugs to alter the way they feel or experience consciousness. Ritualistic use of drugs has been commonly practiced by various cultures such as the mushroom induced trance state utilised by Native American Indians to commune with the Great Spirit. Pacific Islanders drink Kava as a means of connecting with the supernatural, healing illness and welcoming guests to the community.Whilst Indians referred to being consciously high as the state of ‘Shiva’ and associated this process with the worship of one of their prime deities, Shiva. Over time the ritualistic use of drugs has integrated as a part of modern society which can be observed in celebrations such as weddings and birthdays where alcohol is commonly consumed. As there is such a vast range of drugs and influences available with many established uses and categorisations the proce ss of determining why people use drugs becomes intricate very rapidly.Norman E Zinberg developed a theory on drug use which is a widely accepted public health model. The basis of this theory argues that it is not possible to understand drug use, the effects or the outcomes of the drug experience unless you take into account the interrelationship of factors between: the drug, the environment and the individual (Zinberg, 1986). For the purpose of this analysis various aspects of influence have been categorised based on Zinberg’s theory to coherently convey why people use drugs.The categorizations are as follows: Individual (cognition, genetics, and physical/psychological state), drug (perceived functions of drug use in society/specific purpose for using a particular substance, drug related expectancies and compulsive use) and environment (social/contextual level). Boys et al (2001) recorded among a study of 364 participants that had used cannabis over the past year that, the tw o most popular reasons for using the drug were to ‘just get really stoned or intoxicated’ (90. 7%) and ‘help you to relax’ (96. 8%). People using drugs often state that they use them to feel ‘good’.What makes these people feel ‘good’ is the way in which the chemicals in these drugs influence cognition. This state of feeling ‘good’ and or being high is attained because most drugs act on the limbic system in the brain, referred to as the ‘pleasure centre’. The presynaptic terminal releases the neurotransmitters Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Serotonin via nerves located at the terminal. These neurotransmitters are released and travel to the post synaptic terminal where specific receptor sites are located on the nerve cell for each neurotransmitter.Here nerve action potential is developed via neurotransmitter action on the receptor site. Prevalent drugs act by blocking, mimicking or stimulating the release of ne urotransmitters via the presynaptic terminal. When Dopamine levels are increased, mimicked or reuptake is permitted (blocked) the reward pathway in the brain is affected which when stimulated creates feelings of pleasure and euphoria (pleasure is associated with reward). The ingested drug is hence associated with pleasure and reward and the person is influenced to continue using the particular drug.Current cognitive-motivational theories of addiction assert that prioritising appetitive, reward-related information plays an inherent role in the development and continuation of substance abuse (Field & Cox, 2008; Franken, 2003; Wiers et al 2007). A study focused on reward-related attentional processes among 682 young adolescents (mean age= 16. 14) had participants complete a motivated game in the format of a spatial orienting task as a behavioural index of appetitive-related attentional processes and a questionnaire to index substance (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) use.Correlational a nalysis showed a positive relationship between substance use and enhanced attentional engagement, with cues that predicted potential reward and non- punishment (Ostafin et al, 2013). Research since the mid 1960’s has established that genetics play a modest (yet relevant) role in the development of drug use problems in some individuals (Pickens, 1988; Farrell & Strang, 1992; Hill, 1993). It has been conveyed by Mcgue (1994) that genetics have an influence on a person’s disposition to use drugs.After a review of literature on genetics research in relation to alcoholism, Mcgue established that genetic factors exert a moderate influence on male and female risk for alcoholism. It has been suggested by Hansler (2001) that mental illness motivates sufferers to take drugs (prescription and recreational), this process can cause drug problems (when a person takes drugs in the hope of escaping their symptoms or becomes dependent on a prescription drug). Examples include a person suffering from social anxiety ingesting cocaine in order to temperamentally enhance their sociability when going out with friends.Most of the evidence, however, seems to indicate that these factors can lead to problems; that is, biological, social and/or environmental factors predispose a person to have both a mental health and a substance abuse problem. Aesthetics and physicality are also motivators for drug use. A person will ingest substances to alter the physical nature of their body, primarily due to the fact that they are not satisfied with a particular aspect of their physical self. Examples include; performance enhancing drugs (steroids), Viagra and antibiotics.In beginning the process of analysing the perceived functions of drug use/specific purpose for using a particular substance, psychoactive drugs are the first place to start as due to the broad range of this category. The classification of psychoactive drugs is sub divided into three categories (with some drugs falling into more than one category); Depressants, Stimulants and Hallucinogens. Depressants work by inhibiting the activity of the CNS (Central Nervous System), which slows down various bodily functions such as heart rate and breathing.This classification of drugs has with it a reputation inherent within society as having a calming effect (popularised primarily due to alcohol its acceptance and availability). People generally take this type of drug to relax, another primary function and motivation of the use of depressants is to combat the effects of stress and anxiety (reduces nerves and relaxes muscle). These drugs are typically easy to obtain being available illegally and legally. Examples include acquiring a depressant legally via a doctor’s prescription or benzodiazepines to treat anxiety and purchasing marijuana from a local drug dealer in order to alleviate stress from work. Stimulants work by stimulating the CNS (increasing brain activity) which causes the body to become mo re aroused and responsive. Hence stimulants elevate the mood, create excitement and even induce a state of euphoria. Due to the nature of stimulants improving responsiveness this category of drug is associated with increasing people’s energy levels as brain activity is dramatically increased.Stimulants are widely available legally and illegally with the most common being caffeine, which is the most widely used drug in the world (Julien, 2001). Hallucinogens are a class of drug that alter perceptual functions; sight, hearing, smell, taste or physical touch. Hallucinogens disrupt how the nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin interact with the CNS. By altering the natural levels of serotonin in the body, hallucinogens alter the way in which your brain processes information relevant to perceptual functions.The inhibition of the user’s perceptual functions allows for the body to generate an intense high. Hence many users of hallucinogens utilise this type of drug t o experience the intensity of the high and/or to escape reality. Examples of hallucinogens include; magic mushrooms, marijuana and LSD. A web based survey of 96 (50 female, 46 male) regular drinking college students over a ten week period) reported on their previous week alcohol use and experience of 24 alcohol-related consequences, including their subjective evaluations of those consequences.Most notably of the results, hierarchical linear model tests revealed that students drank less and experienced fewer consequences following weeks in which they rated their consequences as more negative (relative to their own typical subjective evaluations), suggesting that viewing one’s recent consequences as aversive prompts self-initiated behaviour change. It was conveyed by Boys et al (1999) that significant relationships between perceived functions and both the persons intentions to use the drug again in the future and the recent use of a particular drug.Data was collected from a cro ss sectional survey of one hundred participants aged 16 – 21 years of age. Higher scores on a five item social/contextual function scale (Eg. using a drug to help you feel more confident in a social situation) were associated with a greater frequency of recent cannabis use. Drug expectancy is a psychoactive process that occurs as a response to an individual’s expectation that a drug induced effect will occur. Drug expectancy divulges the nature of a person desire to experience the effects from a particular drug(s).The effect occurs from a person’s own experience with a drug, education, feedback from peers/family and media influence. Once acquired via direct experience with a drug, the memory network of positive expectancies can be primed by internal or external drug associated cues. Primed expectancies are thought to guide subsequent drug use (Hersen, 2013). Self-reports from 704 college students were content analysed and used to develop the Marijuana Effect Exp ectancy Questionnaire. Responses were examined using exploratory and confirmatory principle components analysis.Six marijuana expectancies (34. 6% of variance) were identified: (a) cognitive and behavioural impairment, (b) relaxation and tension reduction, (c) social and sexual facilitation, (d) perceptual and cognitive enhancement, (e) global negative effects, and (f) craving and physical effects (Schafer & Brown, 1991). When a person begins using a drug on a regular basis they begin to become dependent on the drug. As tolerance towards the drug grows in the person they become more dependent on the drug in order to achieve the same effect they attained from their first usage.Drug dependency can manifest in both physical/psychological forms. This can be classified in the sense that the body requires the drug to function properly relating to either form of classification. When a person abstains from retaining the normal level of the abused drug in their blood withdrawal symptoms begi n to act. Those with a physiological dependency experience physical discomfort, shaking, nausea and vomiting as withdrawal symptoms. People with a Psychological dependence feel depressive, anxious, aggressive and irritated.Research supports the belief that the negative nature of withdrawal symptoms is associated with drug users continued abuse of a certain drug (Rogers, 2002). Social/contextual level influences have a massive level of governance over a person’s rationalising to use drugs. College students say they utilise alcohol and drugs in order to lessen depression, increase sociability, satisfy curiosity, heighten sexual pleasure, alleviate physical discomfort and expand consciousness (Robbins et al. , 1970). Association with peers tilising drugs is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent drug use (Fergusson et al, 1995; Brook et al, 1990). If other members of the group begin using drugs, some people are influenced to trade sobriety for use in order to fit in and a dapt to the group. Motivation for this exists in the individual wanting to conform to the dynamics of the group paired with fear of rejection from the group. An example of this is conveyed by Hohman et al (2013) via a study of data obtained from the National Survey of Parents and Youth (N= 1,604).Two hierarchical multiple regression models were developed examining the association between ambivalent attitudes, intentions and later marijuana use. The hierarchical models consisted of; an analysis of the moderating effect of ambivalence on the persons intent to use marijuana and the testing of the moderation of ambivalence on literal marijuana use a year later. Results from both hierarchical analyses propose that ambivalence moderated the association of friend norms and subsequent adolescent marijuana use: friend norms were better predictors of marijuana intentions (? 0. 151, t = 2. 29, p = 0. 02) and subsequent use when adolescents were attitudinally ambivalent about marijuana use (? = 0. 071, t = 2. 76, p = 0. 006). The environment of a person greatly influences their susceptibility to drug use. Not only does the social context of a person influence drug use but the environment itself plays a very influential role. A study undertaken in Zinberg’s ‘Drug, Set, And Setting: The Basis For Controlled Intoxicant Use’, analysed a group of American soldiers who began using and became addicted to heroin during the Vietnam war.After the war effort, usage â€Å"virtually ceased†, with only 12% of the soldiers remaining addicted after returning back to the United States. It is evident that these American soldiers were utilising heroin as a form of escapism, a way to disassociate themselves from the harsh reality they were situated in. Hence it can be expected that a person’s socioeconomic status would affect their use of drugs. People living in a negative environment and/or of a lower socio economic status would be more likely to turn to dr ug use as a means of dealing with and escaping their predicament.In the process of determining why people use drugs a diverse range of conclusions have been reached via a model representative of Zinberg’s theory. We began by stating the ritual usages practiced for thousands of years which have transcended into society after society. We begin with Zinberg’s notion of the individual and diverge into the way in which human cognition is affected by drugs. As this topic is explored it is conveyed just how susceptible our brains are to drug use and why we enjoy the temperamental effects drugs create.Genetics, physical and psychological disposition are also conveyed as influencing reasoning for drug use. Drugs are addressed via the perceived functions of illegal and legal drugs by an analysis of drug categorisations where perceived functions and reasons for use are conveyed. Drug expectancy and tolerance is explained and the reasoning for continued use and addiction is commun icated via a study by Schafer & Brown (1991). The social/contextual level of influence is analysed via various studies by Zinberg (1986) and Hohman (2013) conveying environmental and social influences.People ingest a diversity of different drugs for a variety of different reasons; socialisation, environmental factors, perceived norms, to relax, pleasure, to conform, genetics, addiction, out of boredom or curiosity or to escape their problems. Reference List Boys, A. , Marsden, J. , Fountain, J. , Griffiths, P. , Stillwell, G. , & Strang, J. (1999). What influences young people's use of drugs? A qualitative study of decision-making. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy,  6,  373–389. Boys, A. , Marsden, J. , ; Strang, J. 2001) Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: a functional perspective. Health Education Research, 16  (4), 457-469. DOI:  10. 1093/her/16. 4. 457. Field, M. , ; Cox, W. M. (2008). Attentional bias in addictive behaviours: a review of its development, causes, and consequences. American Journal of Psychology, 84, 349 – 358 DOI: 10. 1016/j. drugalcdep. 2008. 03. 030. Franken, I. H. (2003). Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches, 4, 563 – 79. Hansler, V. (2001).The Inherent Disposition to Drug Abuse, 9, 32 – 47, New York: Worth Publishers. Hersen, M. (2013). Principles of Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviours and Disorders, 1, 426 – 429 Hill, W. G. (1993). Variation in genetic composition in back crossing programs, 84, 212-213. Hohman, Z. , Crano, W. , Siegel, J. , ; Alvaro E. (2013). Attitude ambivalence, friend norms, and adolescent drug use. Prevention Science, Germany: Springer, DOI: 10. 1007/s11121-013-0368-8. Julien, R. M. (2001). A Primer of Drug Action, 4, 88-105, New York: Worth Publishers.Mcgue, M. (1994). Genes, environment and the etiology of Alcoholism. The development of alcohol problems, exploring the biops ychosocial matrix of risk, 26, 1 – 40. Merrill, J. E. , Jennifer, P. , ; Barnett, N. P. (2013). The Way One Thinks Affects the Way One Drinks: Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol Consequences Predict Subsequent Change in Drinking Behaviour,  Psychology of Addictive Behaviours,  27, 42-51. Robbins L. , Edwin, S. , William, A. , Stern, F. , ; Stern M. (1970). College Student Drug Use. American Journal of Psychiatry 126, 12, 1743 – 1751.Rogers, D. (2002). Substance Dependency: Consequences and the Path to Recovery, 8, 78 – 81. Schafer, J. , ; Brown, S. A. (1991). Marijuana and cocaine expectancies and drug use patterns, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 558 – 565. Schuster, C. , ; Pickens, R. (1988). AIDS and Intravenous Drug Abuse, Problems of drug dependence 1988, 7, 241 – 252. Strang, J. , ; Farrell, M. (1992). Harm Minimisation for Drug Misusers, 3, 1127–1128, London: Sage Van Hemel-Ruiter, M. E. , DeJong, P. J. , Alberti ne, J. , ; Brian D. Ostafin. 2013). Reward- Related Attentional Biases and Adolescent Substance use: The TRAILS Study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 27, 142-150. Wiers, R. W. , Bartholow, B. D. , Van Den-Wildenberg, E. , Thush, C. , Engels, R. , Sher, K. J. , Grenard, J. , Ames, S. L. , ; Stacy, A. W. (2007). Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: a review and a model. Pharmacol Biochem Behaviour, 86, 263–283. Zinberg, N (1986). Drug, Set, and Setting: The Basis For Controlled Intoxicant Use, 10-11, Yale University Press.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Instructions: Read the information below. Do not simply answer the questions!! You will hand in your work on a separate piece of paper. Please put your information in paragraph form. Include any information you have found which helped you to answer your questions. The better Job you do of explaining your results, the more points you will receive. Best wishes and remember to cite all resources! A 34-year-old male from India presents with slowly progressive discovered skin attaches and nodules accompanied by a strange deformity of the nose.The patient has a history of nasal stuffiness and some nasal discharge which is slightly bloody; he also reports loss of libido. A physical examination reveals the following: leonine faces; loss of eyebrows and eyelashes; nodules on the sclera; a depressed nasal bridge; adipose fat deposits in the breast; testicular atrophy; many symmetrical, flat, discovered areas on the skin without defined borders; numerous nodules & broad, raised areas on the ski n; partial loss of pinprick and temperature sensation; no noticed changes; symmetrically enlarged lunar and common personal nerves.A blood work-up was ordered and the CB showed mild anemia. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was slightly elevated. Swabs were taken from the skin patches and they revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli on modified ZEN staining. 1. What disease does this patient have? (be specific! ) 2. What Is the causative organism? 3. What are some of the complications seen associated with this disease? 4. What Is the mode of transmission of this disease? 5. What Is the recommended treatment for this disease?

Ethics And Entertainment Assignment

Artistic Freedom, Commercial Demands, and Ethical Responsibility Resources: Case Study 75: â€Å"The Voice of America† in Media Ethics; Chi. 17 of Media Ethics; and â€Å"Popular Culture: Rage, Rights, and Responsibility' video located on the student website. Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper that addresses the following: Explain what arguments entertainers and their supporters use to justify the use of questionable content. Evaluate the moral, artistic, and commercial underpinnings of those arguments. Explain what types of content should be ensured.List the criteria that would, from your ethical perspective, be appropriate for limiting access to content. Explain why these criteria are ethically appropriate. Explain who should be responsible for censoring content and why. Cite at least two references. Format your paper consistent with PAP guidelines. Resources: Chi. 14 & 17 of Media Ethics; Case Study 74: ‘†Video Game Rage† in Media Ethics; â€Å"Popular C ulture: Rage, Rights, and Responsibility' video located on the student website. Select a popular video game that has been the target of censorship.Write a 1 ,050- to 1,750-word paper that analyzes the arguments for and against the censorship of the video game you selected. Include the following: Describe the concept and game-play of the video game. Identify the main arguments for and against censoring the video game. Explain the artistic, commercial, and ethical considerations behind each argument. Explain whether the video game should be censored or not censored and on what grounds. Explain who is responsible for censorship or, if the video game should not be censored, who is responsible for the potential effect of the content.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Using Ownership Incentives in China Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Using Ownership Incentives in China - Case Study Example roach, the CEO is well placed in motivating the workers to be responsible and work hard considering that their own success is determined by the company’s success. Additionally, the use of this approach is important in demonstrating to the employees that the company values all stakeholders in it equally, and gives similar treatment to all its employees. As observed in the historical practices in China, however, there could be numerous challenges in implementing this considering that the workforce in China could possibly perceive such approaches by the CEO as forcing the American operational culture onto them, while overlooking the native population’s values. Another way of exporting the ownership culture to the Chinese population could involve sticking with the limiting stock ownership to the initial American team. By doing this, the CEO would be expected to formulate a different ownership culture and payment for the China-based team. However, this practice could prove challenging, especially if some of the staff in China could wish to have stock ownership in the company (Beyster and Economy 24). It could also be practical if the CEO exported the culture of ownership to China by creation of different structures of equity based on the different regions of operation. For instance, the ownership culture operations in China could be executed using different optimized methods of payment that are dependent on the region of operation and the taxation policy involved. Exporting the ownership culture to the Chinese employees could also be accomplished by sending expatriates from the US to China for the purpose of introducing the system, as well as offering the required training to the Chinese staff. The use of this approach could, however, experience culture shock for the foreign employees due to their lack of knowledge of the business traditions of the Chinese community. Ben Freed’s decision to offer the Chinese team similar company ownership as the Silicon Valley

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Food inc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Food inc - Essay Example My general reaction to the film is that, it is an amazing documentary that made many facts public. The film could help people protect themselves from their own businesses, something that their own government knew and allowed. Furthermore, the government should be first in fighting such foods, just as it is in fighting Osama Bin Laden. Even though some believe that cheap, a fast and tasty meal is the best food for workers on basis of convenience, this is far too little to consider, instead of its nutritional value. One of the least convincing arguments is that doing away with technology and fertilizer would leave us only with starvation documentaries to watch. Contrary, I believe that the cost of doing away with genetically modified foods is cheaper than the cost of treating diseases related with such foods, and worst of all, the lose of many lives. In order to well understand this documentary, people should remove themselves from their personal opinions and view it, just the way it is. Rhetorical devices have effectively conveyed the message. The call of action at the end is however hypocritical. This is because it only recommends buying foods at farmers markets and organic yoghurt as the only solution to the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Explore the similarities and differences of Chinese and Indian Essay

Explore the similarities and differences of Chinese and Indian management styles - Essay Example Evidence show that crosses cultural management theory helps the managers to be prepared against managerial crisis. It also helps them in choosing the most perfect managerial technique from a variety of techniques, which helps in support business activity (Yau, 2007). The most suitable focus would be to understand the importance of the multiple culture and their utilities for the changes required in the business practice. Cross cultural management theory would require the appreciation of changes and would lead to repositioning of the organization and alteration of the organizations traditional Human Resource Management practices and perspectives (Pang, Roberts and Sutton, 2006). The study will deal with the perspective of cross cultural management and its relevance. The author of the study will give an insight into the increased complexity of the present changing marketing environment and the relevance of the cross cultural management theory in aid for various managerial problems. ... This theory helps the competent managers to recognize and understand the positive and negative impact of the management development theories in assessing the cultural requirements. It also helps the managers in solving the complex business problems and improvement of the existing managerial procedures. Several authors had contributed a considerable time on developing theories about quality management techniques, which improve the transparency between the management and the customer for deriving various contrasting solutions. Globalization and internationalization has introduced several changes in the team composition, dynamics and the workplace (Ward, Entrkin and Pearson, 2002). Several interdepartmental business units of different business sizes are regarded extremely important business source for integration of a singular economy. The organizations which are considered important as domestic business units are lagging behind international business organizations and the major reason behind it is the non understanding of the cross cultural management theory. The impact of diversified work culture on team productivity can be satisfying and rewarding when the organizational climate is positive and congenial (Colson, 2013). Culture is an integral part, which acts as an external source of deep influence and also helps in improving the employee behaviour (Wes, Desai and Burt, 2000). The profound impact of the cross cultural management theories on the business activities help in coping with the certainty and uncertainty collectively. These theories have an impact equally on the individual based strategies developed by the employees

Monday, August 26, 2019

Recognize how group and social factors affect learning Essay

Recognize how group and social factors affect learning - Essay Example People who are under these conditions are often considered to be poor, impoverished, in low income, or broke (Wikipedia, 2006). Though in general poverty is defined as the lack of money, in a holistic definition of poverty it is the continuous denial of the resources, capabilities, choices, security and power essential for fulfillment of an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Poverty is a subjective experience and a structural deficit. There are several factors that influence education and one of the main reasons for it is poverty. There is a connection between poverty and the impact this has on childrens education. When a family is in poverty and fighting for its survival their childs education is not looked at as a high priority. Survival is the first priority. This doesn’t mean that parents did not care about their childs education, but they are not in a position to manage it. There is a spectacular change in the behavior of students as poverty level grows in school system. This behavior is brought on by the lack of parental commitment in their childs daily activities. Most parents may be working multiple jobs to get by and hence rarely see their children, but for some parents do not care to know what their children are doing on a daily basis. This leads to more pessimistic behaviors and also to poor grades. Poor parents may not have enough education to help students, when they are at home. Many students come to school with various worries about their lives, and learning is not at the top of the list. The living environment of these students has a lot to do with learning (WikEd, 2006). Despite these challenges education at all levels is promoted as a powerful resource to raise awareness, motivation and social responsibility for contributing to a more democratic society (Preece, N.D.). Education departments should not throw up their hands in failure. There should be additional

Sunday, August 25, 2019

International Finance Paper (Home Depot) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

International Finance Paper (Home Depot) - Essay Example During the years 2008 and 2009, the company was forced to lay off more than a thousand employees and 54 stores across US had to be closed. This includes the whole of the EXPO Design Centre Chain, which was engaged in high end retailing. In the year 2009 the company logged a sales figure of $71.288 billion, which was $20 billion less than was at it was in 2007. This paper deals with the various financial issues encountered by Home Depot during the course of its operation and talks about the measures, which the company is undertaking to deal with the same. As a business policy, HDI was engaged in mergers and acquisitions from the early days of its operations. The company also later on diversified its operation into other countries like Canada and Mexico, where in it needed expert advice on the various complex issues related to international finance. In these circumstances the company made a deal with Invemed Associates, who are engaged in the business of investment banking. An investment bank has departments like the Corporate Finance, which deals in the areas of mergers and acquisitions along with providing finance related consultancy to the clients. Another important division in the company is of the Research, which is concerned with analysis and valuation of shares and bonds, the recommendations on which are then presented to the clients. An investment bank also provides consultancy to their client’s for raising debts and equity from the market. Invemed Associates is required to constantly monitor the financial health of HDI and report on the same to the Board of Directors of HDI. Invemed is also required to inform the board on any economic trend that is relevant to the type of business in which the company is engaged in. Invemed Associates advises HDI every time it wishes to borrow money from the market or issue securities to the public.  (FindLaw, 2009) Before the sale of Home depot supply in

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Green Banana Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Green Banana - Essay Example The native pointed it out to the American, explaining that the rock is the center of the world. The American professor was politely noncommittal. The mechanic who repaired the jeep’s radiator noticed the green banana â€Å"fix† and asked the American where he had learned it. Upon hearing the traveler’s reply, the mechanic also pointed out the rock that was the center of the world. Reflecting upon this experience, the American experienced a sort of epiphany as he realized that there are â€Å"green bananas† everywhere, and that the â€Å"center of the world† is unique to everyone because it is a reference to a personal comfort zone. The story of the green banana is ripe with symbolism (pun intended). A simple piece of fruit is used to make the reader realize that sometimes what he or she is looking for has been there all along. We may see a green banana in the grocery store and dismiss it, reaching instead for a selection of yellow ones. Being brought up that bananas should be yellow, and that unripe fruit causes uncomfortable intestinal distress, it is logical that the green ones should be passed over. As the writer attests, being a â€Å"product of American higher education† he thought of the banana only as a food source. Had he not been stranded, he surely would have scoffed at the suggestion by a villager that a green banana could be used to plug a leak in a radiator. Prior to this event, he had no incentive to explore the various uses of all kinds of bananas, much like most of us remain ignorant to the contributions possible by others because we have no need to change our ways. This perspective is d etrimental to our development as a society in that it prevents collaboration and the free exchange of different thoughts and ideas. This self-centeredness keeps us ignorant of the many gifts to be offered by other cultures. Such is the case for the American stranded in the village. He was bemused when the child showed up with the green

Friday, August 23, 2019

Discuss the roles of cognition and emotion in moral judgment, with Essay

Discuss the roles of cognition and emotion in moral judgment, with particular reference to the research of Greene et al (2001). Approximately 1000 words - Essay Example ; in the trolley dilemma, whereby a runaway trolley will kill five people and a person is given the choice to press one switch whereby instead of five, only one person will be killed, people generally deem it appropriate to press the switch. In the footbridge dilemma, however, whereby there is a person on the bridge who needs to be pushed down in front of the trolley to save five people, though he will himself be killed, people deem it inappropriate to push that person from the bridge in front of the trolley. The question arises that though the effect of both dilemmas is the same, i.e. one person needs to die to save five from dying, however, people are more reluctant to push someone on to the tracks, though not to press a switch. The question that arises in the minds of moral philosophers is: â€Å"what makes it morally acceptable to sacrifice one life to save five in the trolley dilemma but not in the footbridge dilemma?† (Green et al, 2001). Green et al purpose that perhaps, if one is to take the approach of Immanuel Kant, it can be said that the reluctance arises out of the fact that in the first example, the person is just unfortunately in the way of the trolley, whereas in the second one would have to literally use him to achieve the required end. However, when the same example is changed slightly and the track is looped so that if the body of that one person does not stop it, it will kill the five people, people still think it appropriate to let that one person’s body be used to stop the trolley. Green et al suggest that there is no one correct solution to this problem, there is still confusion as to why in one case it is appropriate for a man’s body to be used to save five people, while inappropriate in another case. The problem also lies in the fact that there are no moral reasons on which these two situations can be distinguished and there are no set moral principles to guide people in coming up with a solution to this problem. Green et al maintain

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Political science- short answers- Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Political science- short answers- Africa - Essay Example Structural adjustments directed towards Africa by the IMF, bilateral donors and the World Bank are some of the policies to reach consolidation (Herbst 51). According to Samuel P. Huntington, it is religious and cultural identities that will primarily breed tension and conflict in the world of post- Cold War. Huntington concluded this after surveying various theories relating the mode of global politics. He argued that the idea of different civilizations is key to analyzing the possibility of conflict (Herbst 45). Civilizations differ from each other in terms of language, culture, history, religion and tradition. This has potential for conflict. Huntington gave a memorable slogan regarding Islamic religion which has agitated friction in the western world. It is the â€Å"Islam has bloody borders† slogan that brings fear in his arguments. Huntington concludes that all Asian countries and other Islamic nation are collectively peace haters. The western will come together and consolidate their power to ensure their interests remain. The Islamic nations will too consolidate and challenge the power and values of the West. The western world has had impact great impact in the world civilizations. To remain relevant, they have to consolidate their military power and fight for their interests and values (Herbst 67). According to Huntington, the West plays a critical role in influencing the political and religious institutions in Africa. The West therefore determines the stability and of the social movements activities of these

English Is Official Language In U.S. Essay Example for Free

English Is Official Language In U.S. Essay Half the countries in the world have an official language. The US is not one of them. Recently some attempts were made to designate English as the official language of the United States, though this country is widely known for being multinational and, correspondently, multilingual. Nevertheless, at the present there are twenty seven states out of fifty that are claiming English to be their official language either by adopting a law or in their state constitutions. Thus, English language de facto occupies a position of the official language in the United States, and there are many supporters of the idea to set it in documents, de jure. The question arises: is this so vital? Should it be done by all means and at any cost? Definitely, there are some clearly stated advantages, pertaining mainly to the issue of immigration, both legal and illegal. Firstly, if English is designated as the official language, it will ensure that all the immigrants become more proficient in English, thus making communication and integration into the society much easier for all the parties. It is difficult to imagine any immigrant achieving the American dream without knowledge of English. This fact, though having little financial of physical impact, will incite people coming from other countries to learn English more zealously. Being forced to learn English, any immigrant will gain access to a full life of an American. Then, English as the default and official language will become a uniting factor for people from different parts of the world. They all came to America from divergent backgrounds, and English language is the tie that can bind them together. The last but not the least is the financial factor. Many states maintain language diversity thoroughly, which can not but call for extensive financial support. There are bilingual ballots, education, publications, and similar services provided at public expense. Massachusetts offers drivers tests in more than two dozen foreign languages. Federal voting rights laws provide for ballots in multiple translations. Internal Revenue Service forms are printed in Spanish. Elimination of need to translate these from one language into another may save a lot of money. On the other hand, all these advantages can easily turn into disadvantages if regarded from the other point of view. Thus, immigrants coming from all parts of the world will have to abandon their native language and most traditions. Of course, as it has already been mentioned, this would benefit to their integration into the American society, but at the same time weakening of cultural and historical bonds may result in loss of national identity. Moreover, the idea of ‘English-only’ implies the feeling of linguistic superiority and somehow exclusivity. It can definitely and can be upsetting to people whose native language is not English.   Its misuse would be intended to provoke an emotional reaction and in a way irritate anyone who favors making English the US official language, as well as those who simply want to protect its role as the common language of the United States. Designating English as the official language will also give trouble to bilingual education which is nowadays very popular in many states. Bilingual education programs use both the students native language and English for instruction. It is emphasized that native language development has the positive influence on second language proficiency. Lack of first language development has been shown, in some cases, to inhibit the level of second language proficiency and cognitive academic development. Successful bilingual education programs actually result in faster acquisition of English. Content matter taught in the native language can be transferred to the second language. In the regular classroom, confronted with both concepts and language that are not comprehensible to them, limited English speakers learn neither the content nor the language. Language acquisition occurs only when incoming messages can be understood. Again, to be successful, citizens need to be open to learning multiple languages. Business leaders and Europeans do it. Knowing multiple languages is a great asset. In a global economy, it is the monolingual English speakers who are falling behind. Along with computer skills, a neat appearance and a work ethic, Americans more and more are finding that a second language is useful in getting a good job. What is the most important, everybody knows that English is the official language already, even if it was not designated to be one. Its declaration as the official tongue would be nothing but a mere symbol. No matter how hard the proponents of designation try to officially establish a language for the US, it is in vain; such a language already exists and is predominant. Correspondingly, efforts to strive for it can be applied to maintain the country’s multilingualism. Outline: question of designating English as the official language in the USA is a debatable one. The arguments â€Å"for† are that it would encourage immigrants to learn the language, helping them to integrate into the society and become citizens of the United States.   It would also help to save the money spent on translations. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of such a step prevail: loss of language and culture of immigrants, problems with bilingual education, limitation of possibility to acquire new languages.   Nevertheless, the crucial factor â€Å"against† the designation is that it would mean nothing, as most benefits from such the step are already existent.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Leadership Is About Leading Followers Management Essay

Leadership Is About Leading Followers Management Essay According to Williams, C McWilliams, A, leadership is about leading followers to achieve organization or company goals. The purpose of this essay is to define the differences between transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The former facilitates a redefinition of a peoples mission and vision, a renewal of their commitment and the restructuring of their systems for goal accomplishment (Leithwood, cited in Cashin et al. 2000, pp. 1). While the latter occur when the give and take exchange happens. Transformational leadership usually called as a charismatic leadership. It is the most studied guide of leadership (Bass 1985, 1990; Bass Avolio 1993, 1994; Gastil 1994; Lowe et al.1996; Pawar Eastman 1997; Shamir et al. 1998; Yammorino et al.1997; Yukl 1994), while transactional leadership called as an authoritative leadership, serves to articulate and establish positions held by the leader. This leadership is the least supportive of intentional change (McWhinney 1997, pp. 194). The differences between both of them are the process and the behavior. The process of transformational leadership which is a leadership focusing on team building and strategies where all employees and leaders have a strong bond to make decisions to reach the target. For example: the McDonalds manager obligation is to make strategy how to provide less time to serve the chickens. While the process of transactional leadership is about making sure everything goes as desire and about the reward and the punishme nt. The rewards are given such as honor, wage, etc. While, the punishment is well understood by everyone. The example of transactional leadership is job for McDonalds employees is to sell as many chickens as possible. According to Bass (1985), transactional leadership behaviors which are the leadership aiming at monitoring and controlling employees through rational or economic means. While transformational leadership behaviors are a variety of field studies demonstrating that are positively related to employees satisfaction, self-reported effort, and job performances. Transformational / charismatic leadership usually make a better performance than transactional / authoritative leadership. It will produce a greater satisfaction and make less role conflict.   In addition, Ashkanasy Tse (2000) and Bass (2002) said that, emotions are playing an important rule in the leaderships process. Transformational leadership is very sensitive to the emotions of the followers. This sensitiveness could lead the followers to a good result if the leaders have a positive thought. Example: if the leaders of the groups have a very high self-motivation, the followers can reach beyond what they expected because they can trust their leaders, otherwise if leaders without positive thought, the leaders will not get the employees trust. While in the transactional leadership, it does not seem to be as sensitive as the transformational leadership. In this leadership, the leaders are not supporting the employees and cause the negative effects that make frustrations, sadness and regret to the employees because not getting what they want or expect. So, transformational leadership is more related to the positive effects while transactional leadership is more related to the negative effects.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Everyone personality is different, so do the leaders. Which will provide different impact to the followers. Bass (1985) identified eight dimensions of leadership behaviors. The first transformational behavior is an idealized influence, refers to leaders who have a very high personal regard and who engender loyalty from followers. The second transformational leadership behavior is an inspirational motivation, refers to leaders with a strong vision for the future based on values and ideals. The third transformational leadership dimension is an intellectual stimulation, which refers to leaders who challenge organizational norms. Individual consideration is the fourth transformational leadership dimension, refers to a leader behavior aiming at recognizing the unique growth and development the needs of followers. The fifth is contingent reward, refers to leadership behaviors focused on exchange of resources. The next one is management by exception-active, refers to monitoring performance and taking corrective action as necessary. In the management by exception-passive, the leaders are taking a passive approach. Finally, Bass (1985) included Laissez-Faire under the transactional leadership label.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     An example of Malaysians business which have transformational leadership is Air Asia. The owner of Air Asia is Tony Fernandes who was born on 30th  April 1964, this organization is bought by him from DRB-Hicom. He studied in London, United Kingdom majoring in Finance in 1976 and graduated in 1987. Before he joined Warner Music International London in 1989 and had been promoted four times in twelve years (approximately promoted every three years), he worked in Virgin group majoring in communications. In 1992, he was transferred to Malaysia back to his hometown. And at the age of 28, he received the title of the youngest person in recording music industrys history to head Warner Music Malaysia. Unfortunately, he leave his promising career in music industry which he had earned the position as a vice president, ASEAN region because he was going to build a low price airline based on almost the same business models as in USA (Southwest Airlines) and E urope (Ryanair easyJet). Setia Mahkota Selangor is the title which he got in 1999 and given by his Royal Highness King of Malaysia Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah. In this airline organization he lead, the first priority is the employees, it can be said that this is showing the organizations loyalty. Because of this organizations trustworthiness, the employees give a good service to the customers to show the respect to the organization. This transformational leadership behavior is included into an idealized influence.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Even though transformational leadership is more recommended than transactional leadership as it is said above, it does not mean that transactional leadership is not important. Because the function of transactional leadership is to motivate employees to do beyond than they could expect. So both of the leadership is needed in every organization. The organization should balance their leadership between the transformational and transactional leadership. (916 words)

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Dilemma of Immigrants in America Essay -- Literary Analysis, Bharati M

In the essay, â€Å"American Dreamer† by Bharati Mukherjee, Mukherjee writes about the problems of immigrants nowadays. Because of her families religious tradition, Mukherjee is confined by her permanent identity in her own culture, â€Å"a Hindu Indian’s last name announced his or her forefathers’ caste and place of origin†¦a Mukherjee could only be Brahmin from Bengal†¦my identity was viscerally connected with ancestral soil and genealogy† (Mukherjee 1). From her attitude towards her identity, Mukherjee does not want to confine by the Hindu tradition. She is rebellious against her own culture even though she understands Hindu tradition forbids any assimilation with any other culture. After her marriage with an American of Canadian origin, she had hard time adopting the new environment in Canada. People in Canada see her as a â€Å"visible minority† because of her race that she is not white. She remarked America as promising nation o f democracy and equality; however, America still has many flaws on the clash of ethnic issues. No matter how hard the immigrants try to assimilate into American culture, the society treats them as minority, subordinate citizens. Because they are not white, they are categorized as being â€Å"Asian-American†. She pointed out that immigrants are trapped in the† identity crisis†: a person not knowing who he or she is in the foreign culture, and some of the first-generation Indo-Americans are even â€Å"more-Indian-than-Indians-in-India† (Mukherjee 3). Similarly, in Jasmine by Bharati Mukherjee, Jasmine, the protagonist is an immigrant from India and she has created different identities for every place she stays. Jasmine aspires to forget her past memories and identities, while some immigrants in the novel are seeking to reta... ...l group. Although they are U.S. citizen, they lose their sense of belonging in America. Nirrmala is living in her own little world while Professorji is disguising himself from the lost of dream. They do not know who they are and where they belong to. A wife who still keeps her Indian name and culture and a husband who attempts to fit into the American society but his ego is still drowning in his past. Mukherjee who has deserted her biological identity, she would exclaim to the immigrants that to follow the Jasmine’s belief, â€Å"to bunker oneself inside nostalgia, sheathe the heart in a bulletproof vest, was to be a coward† (Mukherjee 185). Immigrants should suppress their cultural memory, â€Å"let the past make you wary, by all means. But do not let it deform you† (Mukherjee 131). Mukherjee conveys that let the American culture to transmogrify them, but not their past.

Monday, August 19, 2019

A Day of Fishing with my Dad Essay -- Personal Narrative Writing

A Day of Fishing I can still remember that day. All the beauty of nature collected in one moment. I can still feel the sponginess of the winter-aged leaves under my feet. I felt as though I was walking on a cloud, the softness of the leaves cushioning my every step, they were guiding me along the wooded path to a small creek. The humming of the water moving with the crispness of the air, together they were singing a promise of a fresh and clean new season. It was a beautiful spring that year. Every so often a day like that comes back and I am reminded of posing for our picture together. My cheeks begin to ache as I remember the smile so big on my face when the camera snapped. I thought my face would break in half if I tried to smile any wider. I was four years old and my hair was a lovely brunette with spears of pale blonde. The color every woman dreams of now. Shoulder length and bobbed I covered all my hair with a baseball hat, a smaller vesion of my father, we were going fishing. My skin was white for lack of sun from winter but my cheeks were bright red from the brisk air. T-shirt and jeans I was ready to fish. Of course my mother made certain that I was wearing my spring jacket. My mother seemed so happy. In my reflection of the situation her dream of a family had come true. She had me and my father, we were spending quality time together. She wasn't too fond of fishing, not that it was my favorite thing to do either; but my father was taking us. Wow he loved fishing. It's funny, I can't really remember what my mother was wearing but then again she wasn't in the picture. She was behind the camera and I think sometimes my memories fade when there isn't a picture to remind me. My father seemed to share my moth... ...d dreams. It is not like I never see him or talk to him; I do. He has been in and out of my life ever since. Occasionally he calls to say hi or ask how I'm doing; he is never consistent. Our convesations are short and very uncomfortable. When I am out shopping or running errands I sometimes run into him by chance, (or fate who knows). All of our truths and his lies are always there but never talked about. I can't remember the last time he called on my birthday, sometimes I wonder if he even remembers my birthday or even thinks of me when my birthday comes around every year. He never calls on holidays. It is really hard for me to talk to someone who was once my father, and now is a complete stranger. After all the things I know about my father, the strangest feeling I have is under the hurt and the pain, what I hope and pray for is day we might go fishing again.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Walkabout Essay -- Australia Aborigines Literature Essays

Walkabout This story is about two children who are stranded in the Australian outback after a plane crash. By chance they meet an Aborigine boy who is on his walkabout. From these two different groups of people meeting each other, it shows the reader how much people can learn from others and how different we all are. Mary’s first inclination is to mother Peter. She feels responsible for him and he depends on her. But she feels inadequate in this new environment. ‘Always she had protected Peter, had smoothed things out and made them easy for him – molly-coddled him like an anxious hen, her father had once said. But how could she protect him now?’ Then the bush boy comes across their path and things become tense between the children and aborigine. The very first thing Mary notices about the Aborigine is that he is very black and naked. She finds this very disturbing, ‘The thing that she couldn’t accept, the thing that seemed to her shockingly and indecently wrong, was the fact that the boy was naked.’ As the two cultures confront each other they just stare at each other in disbelief and wonder, ‘Between them the distance was less than the spread of an outstretched arm, but more than a hundred thousand years.’ ‘They had climbed a long way up the ladder of progress; they had climbed so far, in fact, that they had forgotten how their climb had started’ They had had everything provided for them and had never had to fend for themselves. ‘It was very different with the Aboriginal way of life. He knew what reality was. Their lives were unbelievably simple compared to the aborigine. They had no homes, no crops, no clothes, no possessions. The few things they had they shared: food and wives; children and l... ...least offended by it. Peter and Mary mix very naturally with these Aborigine strangers. The women swim together and share food and Peter as been drawn to a particular man within the tribe. The man looks at the drawings they had done earlier of a house and realises that they need to find civilisation. He draws them a map, which ends in a house so they know where to go. Before they leave Peter takes in the beauty of their surroundings he ‘knew in that moment that every detail of what he’d seen in the last two weeks he’d remember for he rest of his life.’ He then leads the way via the map to civilisation and Mary follows. It makes you hope that they will take back with them into their ‘civilised’ culture all they have learned from the Aboriginal people and their strange ways of life with their fantasy lands, spiritual gods and there true sense of belonging.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Feinberg

Feinberg’s Theory of Freedom and Rights The exact meaning of â€Å"freedom† is often misunderstood due to the many meanings the word has taken on. When a man was labeled â€Å"free† decades ago, it was to distinguish if you were simply talking about his legal rights or the characteristics his status. If someone tells you now-a-days that they are â€Å"free† it now poses the problem of not knowing exactly what they are free from. Is the man free from debt, from his country’s government or from his sins? We will not know until more information is given to us.We just know he is free from something that was constraining. Feinberg draws a tie between constraints and desires which lead him to the conclusion that freedom is unsatisfied when constrains stand in the way of our desires. When this happens, our reaction is frustration, which is considered unhappiness. With that idea, having freedom would conclude that the person was considered happy. This may s eem far- fetched but drawn up thoroughly by Feinberg. The idea of being happy when having freedom is board.We need to figure out what kind of freedom is being awarded. There is positive and negative freedom. But watch out, the names are misleading. Positive doesn’t always mean â€Å"great† or â€Å"pleasant† in this case and negative freedom doesn’t necessarily meaning â€Å"awful† or â€Å"appalling. † On top of â€Å"positive† and â€Å"negative† constraints being factors in the definition of a person’s freedom, we also have to look at the source of the constraint. It can either be external or internal meaning the source is coming from an outside source or within you.A great definition was stated in Feinberg’s article â€Å"If the distinction between internal and external is to be put to political use, perhaps the simplest way of making it is by means of merely spatial criterion: external constraints are those that come from outside a person’s body-cum-mind, and all other constraints. † (p. 13) With the idea of external and internal constraints brought into the picture, we now have a pool of constraints to choose from. Positive external, negative internal are just a few examples.Positive now means â€Å"addition or adding something on,† whereas negative means â€Å"taking away or lack of. † An example of an internal positive constraint would be a headache whereas an external positive constraint would be a lock door. An example of an internal negative constraint would be ignorance whereas an external negative constraint would be a lack of money. Once we can see that there are different types of constraints, there is no real reason to speak of the two different types of freedom.The reason there is no longer a need to discriminate is that if nothing prevents me from doing something, I am free to do something conversely, I am free to do something then nothing preven ts me from doing something. Feinberg’s idea of â€Å"human rights† was they were sometimes understood to be ideal rights, sometimes conscientious rights and sometimes both. They are considered moral rights due to the fact that each person held them equally, unconditionally. He doesn’t suggest the rights are moral by definition and leaves that up for argument but does admit that there is a possibility that human rights don’t even exists.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Virus and Bacteria

A virus is a capsule of protein that contains genetic material. A virus cannot reproduce on its own; it must infect a living cell to grow. Bacteria – Bacteria are one-celled organisms that live on their own. They can multiply and reproduce by subdivision Bacteria and viruses cause many of the diseases we are familiar with and may sound synonymous; they are greatly different from each other. [pic] o They differ greatly in size. The biggest viruses are only as large as the tiniest bacteria.Viruses are microscopic; they range in size from about 20 to 400 nanometers in diameter (1 nanometer = 10-9 meters). By contrast, the smallest bacteria are about 400 nanometres in size. o Another difference is their structure. Bacteria are complex compared to viruses. A typical bacterium has a rigid cell wall and a thin, rubbery cell membrane surrounding the fluid, or cytoplasm inside the cell. A bacterium contains all of the genetic information needed to make copies of itself—its DNAâ €”in a structure called a chromosome. In addition, it may have extra loose bits of DNA called plasmids floating in the cytoplasm.Bacteria also have ribosomes, tools necessary for copying DNA so bacteria can reproduce. Some have threadlike structures called flagella that they use to move. o A virus may or may not have an outermost spiky layer called the envelope. All viruses have a protein coat and a core of genetic material, either DNA or RNA. The main difference between viruses and bacteria is the way they reproduce. Bacteria, given the proper nutrients, can grow and reproduce on their own. But viruses cannot â€Å"live† or reproduce without getting inside some living cell, whether it's a plant, animal, or bacteria.Viral vs. Bacterial Reproduction Bacteria contain the genetic blueprint (DNA) and all the tools (ribosomes, proteins, etc. ) they need to reproduce themselves. Viruses are moochers. They contain only a limited genetic blueprint and they don't have the necessar y building tools. They have to invade other cells and hijack their cellular machinery to reproduce. Viruses invade by attaching to a cell and injecting their genes or by being swallowed up by the cell. Here's an example of viral infection. These are T4 bacteriophages. They are a kind of virus that infects bacteria.Here they are landing on the surface of an E. coli bacterium. The bacteriophage cuts a hole in the E. coli's cell wall. It then injects its genetic material into the bacterium. By taking over the E. coli's genetic machinery, the viral genes tell the bacterium to begin making new virus parts. These parts come together to make whole new viruses inside the bacterium. Eventually so many new viruses are made that the E. coli bursts open and dies, releasing all those new viruses to infect more cells! Some diseases caused by virus and bacteria:Name of the disease |Caused by |Name of the microbes | |Polio |Virus |polio | |Pneumonia |Virus / Bacteria |influenza virus (flu) | | | |r espiratory syncytial virus (RSV) | |Hepatitis |Virus |Hepatitis A Virus | | | |Hepatitis B Virus | |Mumps |Virus | | |Bronchitis |Virus |respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) | |AIDS |Virus |human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) | |Tuberculosis |Bacteria |Mycobacterium tuberculosis | |Tetanus |Bacteria |Clostridium tetani | |Anthrax |Bacteria | | |Diphtheria |Bacteria | | |Chicken Pox |Virus |varicella-zoster (VZV) |How bacteria and viruses enter the body To cause disease bacteria have to gain access to the body.The ways in which a bacteria can get access to an animal body are:†¢ Cuts†¢ Contaminated food or water†¢ Close contact with an infected person†¢ Contact with the faces of an infected person†¢ Breathing in the exhaled droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes†¢ Indirectly, by touching contaminated surfaces – such as taps, toilet handles, toys and nappies.Viruses are spread from one person to another by:†¢ Coughs†¢ Sneezes†¢ Vomits†¢ Bites from infected animals or insects†¢ Exposure to infected bodily fluidsCuring a bacterial infection The body reacts to pathogenic bacteria by increasing local blood flow (inflammation) and sending in cells from the immune system to attack and destroy the bacteria.Antibodies produced by the immune system attach to the bacteria and help in their destruction. Serious infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by disrupting the bacterium's metabolic processes. The body's response to viral infection Viruses pose a considerable challenge to the body's immune system because they hide inside cells. This makes it difficult for antibodies to reach them. However, special immune system cells, called T-lymphocytes, can recognize and kill cells containing viruses. Many viruses, when released from infected cells, will be effectively knocked out by antibodies, produced in response to infection or previous immunization.Antibiotics are useless against viral infecti ons. Antiviral drugs are available only for few viral diseases, such as influenza, herpes, hepatitis B and C and HIV, but research is ongoing. However, immunization is helpful in fighting viral infection. The large scale immunization has led to the eradication of small pox once one of the most feared viral disease. How to Know When You Need Antibiotics Don't expect antibiotics to cure every illness. Antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections. In the past antibiotics were prescribed â€Å"just in case† the infection was bacterial rather than viral because it was thought that taking them â€Å"couldn't do any harm†. Wrong.This very practice has contributed to the development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. While the use of antibiotics depends on the specific diagnosis, basic guidelines include: Colds and flu are caused by viruses. They can’t' be cured with antibiotics. Symptoms can last two weeks or more and should be allowed to run t heir course.Cough and bronchitis are almost always caused by viruses. However, if you have a lung condition or the illness lasts a long time; your infection may be caused by a bacteria instead. Your doctor may decide to try treatment with an antibiotic.Sore throats are most often caused by viruses. Strep throat is caused by bacteria and requires treatment with antibiotics. A throat swab and a lab test are needed before your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic for a sore throat.Ear infections often require the use of antibiotics. However, not all ear infections are bacterial infections.Sinus infections do not always indicate a bacterial infection.Even if you have a runny nose, or yellow or green mucus, you may not have a bacterial infection. Antibiotics should only be used for severe infections or infections that last more than two weeks. What is diarrhea? Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Children can also have diarrhea without having an infect ion, such as when diarrhea is caused by food allergies or as a result of taking medications (such as antibiotics).A child is considered to have diarrhea when the child's bowel movements are both more frequent than usual and looser and more watery than usual. Children with diarrhea may have additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, stomach aches, headache, or fever. Swine Flu: Swine flu is an infection caused by a virus. It's named for a virus that pigs can get. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. The virus is contagious and can spread from human to human. Symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, chills, weakness and general discomfort.Figure: Electron microscope image of the reassorted H1N1 influenza virus photographed at the CDC Influenza Laboratory. The viruses are 80–120  nanometres in diameter. There are antivir al medicines you can take to prevent or treat swine flu. There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza byCovering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.Washing your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. You can also use alcohol-based hand cleaners.Avoiding touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way. Trying to avoid close contact with sick people.Staying home from work or school if you are sick. Prevention of food to contaminate Here are four major tips recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) to prevent contaminating food.Use caution when buying food. o When at the grocery store, pick up perishable food such as meat, eggs, and milk at the very end of your shopping, so they will stay cool. o Take food home right away so that it doe s not spoil in a hot car. o Avoid raw or unpasteurized milk. o Because eggs, meat, seafood, and poultry are most likely to contain bacteria, do not allow their juices to drip on other food.Store food properly. Store eggs, raw meat, poultry, and seafood in the refrigerator. o A refrigerator should be set at 40 ° F. o A freezer should be set at 0 ° F. o Regularly clean and disinfect the refrigerator and freezer. o Use containers to prevent contaminating other foods or kitchen surfaces. Do not store food uncovered in the refrigerator or freezer.Use special precautions when preparing and cooking food. o Wash your hands and clean and disinfect kitchen surfaces before, during, and after handling, cooking, and serving food. o Defrost frozen food on a plate either in the refrigerator or in a microwave, but not on the counter. o Cook food immediately after defrosting.Use different dishes and utensils for raw foods than you use for cooked foods. o Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eat ing them.Cool and promptly store leftovers after food has been served. o Because harmful bacteria grow at room temperature, keep hot food hot at 140 ° F or higher, and keep cold food cold at 40 ° F or cooler. This is especially important during picnics and buffets. o Do not leave perishable foods out for more than two hours. o Promptly refrigerate or freeze leftovers in shallow containers or wrapped tightly in bags.Figure: (a) Components of virus, (b) components of bacteriaFigure: Reproduction of T4 bacteriophage Virus

The Negatives Of Genetic Engineering

The term â€Å"genetic engineering† was first coined by Jack Williamson in is science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 1 951 ,one year before Dona's role in heredity was confirmed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that the DNA molecule has a double-helix structure, DNA stands for (desorbing cultic acid). For many years, there has been a controversy surrounding the morality of genetic modifying organisms.Some it's unethical since it may lead to side effects such as mutation, others say it's totally acceptable since it can make a stronger healthier and smarter organism. I tryingly believe that genetic engineering should be banned for multiple reasons such as religion, morals, physical attributes and crossing species boundaries. In every country there is different religions and these religions have different views. One of these views are on genetic engineering, whether it is acceptable or not modifying genes. God created us human not perfect so why do we want to reach perfection when it is not a human trait. Other people who lack faith will tell you humans seek perfection it's in their nature so it's k modifying genes, but if we reached perfection what do we have to seek, we loud be perfect and lose our touch of humanity. Is genetic engineering ethical to do, children who are made with specific genes are produced for one specific reason and it is to help another person medically in other words they are made for being spare for the specific person.In my sister's keeper a book about a girl who was a genetically modified to help her dying sister from cancer for 12 years she was used as a spare for her sister and when they wanted to take a kidney, she took matter in her own hands and sued her parents for emancipation. So it is not moral or right to bring a person just to be spare. Although other people will contradict and say that by doing so they are saving lives, but they don ;t think of t he lives they are destroying .Gene modifying is not a 100% accurate, it has many mishaps one of the mishaps is a chronic disease which happened in 2001 at a reproductive facility in new jersey were thirty babies who are genetically modified and have genes of three different people, two women and a man some of these thirty children had turners syndrome and turners syndrome happens to one in very 2500 baby and in thirty babies it occurred more than twice is alarming. There people contradict that genetic modification has many benefits, like it increases polymorphism but what about mutations that occur in the children that born. Are they supposed to live with disabilities because some scientists wanted to play god. What about modifying genes to create a new species, are we ready to see a new type of species walking around with us, scientists are talking about a new kind of humans that have the outer look of humans and the abilities of animals, do we want a human tiger that may be aggres sive and be a hazard to other normal humans?

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Report on Pizza Hut Essay

During the past four decades Pizza Hut has built a reputation for excellence that has earned the respect of consumers and industry experts alike. Building a leading pizza company has required relentless innovation, commitment to quality and dedication to customer service and value. The qualities of entrepreneurship, growth and leadership have characterized Pizza Hut’s business through more than four decades of success. Through the strength of its heritage, its culture and its people and franchisees, Pizza Hut looks forward to more success in future. There are different objectives of every organization. In order to achieve these objectives different targets are set. Targets pass down the hierarchy depending on the nature of the business. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives, management decides on different strategies. These strategies are divided into many sub-parts and are useful for the running of the business. The employees and the management know what they have to achieve through the targets which have been set to them and the strategies they have adopted help them know the way they will achieve the objectives. Similarly, Pizza Hut has different targets set to them and they have adopted different strategies to successfully achieve the targets set. These targets are set by the RSC i. e. the restaurant support centre in Karachi. These targets are passed on to the RGM (restaurant general manager) and he passes them to the workforce. These targets fall within the organizational structure in which there are many people who have different targets to achieve. In order to successfully achieve the targets they need to co-operate and work in a friendly environment. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 4 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut HISTORY OF PIZZA About Pizza, Some will tell you Italy. That’s wrong. What you know as pizza came into vogue around the time of Napoleon and the French revolution. Italians, known to be lovers of fine food and wines perfected and imported this terrific dish to America. From here it quickly endeared itself to mass production and re-export to the rest of the world. Bon appetite! INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF PIZZA HUT In 1958, Frank and Dan Carney had an idea for a great local pizza restaurant in Wichita Kansas. The small 25 seat restaurant only had room for 9 letters on the sign†¦ the building looked like a hut†¦ so ‘Pizza Hut’ was born! Fifteen years later, we opened the first UK restaurant and since then we’ve become the biggest Pizza Company on the planet, Let see listen Pizza Hut Story from them! †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ 1958 Frank and Dan Carney open the first Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas. 1972 1000 restaurants are open throughout the USA. 1973 Pizza Hut went international with restaurants in Japan, Canada & England. The first UK Pizza Hut opened in Islington, London. 1977 PepsiCo bought Pizza Hut. 1980 Pan Pizza was introduced. 1982 The UK joint venture started between PepsiCo and Whitbread. 1984 Over 50 restaurants so far in the UK. 1986 By now, there were 100 restaurants in the UK and 5000 worldwide. 1987 An average of one restaurant opened each week in the UK. 1988 The UK’s First Delivery Unit was opened in Kingsbury, London. 1992 There were 9,000 restaurants in 84 countries. 1993 There were 300 restaurants and delivery stores in the UK. 1994 10,000 Pizza Huts were open for business. 1997 PepsiCo decided to focus on their drinks business. As a result, Tricon Global Restaurants was born, creating the largest restaurant brand in the World. Tricon became the partner company with Whitbread. 1999 Pizza Hut had over 400 restaurants, employing 14000 people. 2002 Tricon Global became YUM! Brands Inc. 2006 Whitbread sold their share of the joint venture to Yum! Brands Inc. Pizza Hut UK Ltd was now 100% owned by Yum! 2008 We bought Godfather’s Pizza in Ireland with 28 stores. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 5 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Pizza Hut’s Mission Statement. We take pride in making a perfect pizza and providing courteous and helpful service on time all the time. Every customer says, â€Å"I’ll be back! † We are the employer of choice offering team members opportunities For Growth, Advancement, And Rewarding Careers in a Fun, Safe Working Environment. †¢ P. E. A. R. L. S ? PASSION for excellence in Doing everything ? EXECUTE with positive energy and urgency. ? ACCOUNTABLE for growth in customer satisfaction and profitability. ? RECOGNIZE the achievement of others and have fun doing it. ? LISTEN and more importantly, respond to the voice of the customer. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 6 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut COMPARATIVE STRATEGY: This forced competitors to look for new methods of increasing their customer bases. Many pizza chains decided to diversify and offer new nonpizza items such as Buffalo wings, and Italian cheese bread. The current trend in pizza chains today is the same. They all try to come up with some newer, bigger, better, pizza for a low price. Offering special promotions and new pizza variations are popular today as well. For example, chicken is now a common topping found on pizzas. In the past, Pizza Hut has always had the first mover advantage. Their marketing strategy in the past has always been to be first. One of their main strategies that they still follow today is the diversification of the products they offer. Pizza Hut is always adding something new to their menu, trying to reach new markets. For example, in 1992 the famous buffet was launched in Pizza Hut restaurants worldwide. They were trying to offer many different food items for customers who didn’t necessarily want pizza. Another strategy they used in the past and are still using is the diversification of their pizzas. Pizza Hut is always trying to come up with some innovative way to make a pizza into something slightly different different enough that customers will think it’s a whole new product. For example, let’s look at some of the pizzas Pizza Hut has marketed in the past. In 1983, Pizza Hut introduced their Pan Pizza, which had a guarantee of being ready to eat in 5 minutes when dining at Pizza Hut restaurants. In 1993, they introduced the â€Å"Bigfoot,† which was two square feet of pizza cut into 21 slices. In 1995, they introduced â€Å"Stuffed Crust Pizza,† where the crust would be filled with cheese. In 1997, they marketed â€Å"The Edge,† which had cheese and toppings all the way to the edge of the pizza. Currently, they are marketing â€Å"The Big New Yorker,† trying to bring the famous New York style pizza to the whole country. Lastly, Pizza Hut has always valued customer service and satisfaction. In 1995, Pizza Hut began two customer satisfaction programs: a UAN (in USA 1-800) number customer hotline and a customer call-back program. These were implemented to make sure their customers were happy, and always wanted to return. In our plan, we will first give a situation analysis of current and relevant environmental conditions that affect our plan. Next, we will give a brief analysis of the current fast food industry, and any trends or changes that might occur in the future. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 7 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 8 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut ENVIRONMENTAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF PIZZA HUT In our visit to Pizza Hut we conducted research on PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technological) Analysis. In the internal analysis of Pizza Hut we have considered SWOT of the Company. PEST (Political, Economic, Social & Technological) i. POLITICAL ISSUES: Political issues include regulatory frame work operating in judicial system which may affect the business in different ways. There are not many political factors in Peshawar affecting Pizza Hut as is lack of competition. Factors such as laws on business employment, pollution and taxation apply on the organization which it has to follow regarding the rules. ii. ECNOMIC FACTORS: If the county’s economy is better so the GDP of the country will be good, this is a green signal for the business as the per capita income of the people will be increased and they will spend more money. In our survey we came to know that most of the people in the beginning of the months spend more and they visit pizza hut very often. When the inflation rate increases the cost of raw material also increases and this leads towards high prices of the products and vice versa. iii. SOCIAL FACTORS: Pizza hut is a multinational and it is basically originated from America so the organization is overwhelmed by western culture. There are social forms of society which consist of Upper class, middle class, middle upper class, lower class and lower class. Every country has cultural norms, values, beliefs and religion which can affect the organization. iv. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS: Now a day’s technology is improving so as baking and heating ovens will be of new and efficient technology and will provide efficient service. Due to new technology there are new ways of marketing like internet; telemarketing and the organization can advertise their products with much more faster pace. Computer based customer data that is MIS (managing information system) helps in collecting customer data, daily transactions, future forecasting and decision making. New vehicles will make their service more efficient. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 9 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut SWOT ANALYSIS: Every organization has its strengths, weakness, opportunity and threats. So, the SWOT analysis for pizza hut is as under: Strengths: Pizza Hut is the market leader in providing different products of pizzas as there are no competitors in this sector. There good image makes the organization more strong. Pizza Hut is providing good taste, quality products with qualified staff, good atmosphere and hygienic environment. They are specialized in pizzas. Motivation level of staff is very high which make the organization more prosperous. They are ISO (International Standard Organization) certified. They have enough resources for operating different activities of the organization. They are providing free home delivery service. They have created monopoly in this sector. Another big Strength and even a Competitive Advantageis the fact that they have a full service restaurant as well as delivery services. Most of Pizza Hut’s competitors do not have restaurants. Because of the restaurant, Pizza Hut can market too many different segments that other pizza chains cannot. For example, Pizza Hut can market to families much easier than Domino’s or Little Caesar’s. Weaknesses: However, the fact that Pizza Hut does have a restaurant to run is also a weakness. Pizza Hut has higher overhead costs, due to the restaurant that other competitors don’t have to deal with. Another result of higher overhead costs is higher prices Pizza Hut must charge. Obviously, Pizza Hut is not the low cost producer. They rely on their quality pizza and good service to account for their higher prices. They are providing less range of products comparatively with high prices. They are more focused on Western taste instead of Eastern. Opportunities: New markets can be explored and new opportunities they can gain. Pizza Hut can come up with the new products considering the Eastern taste of the people as like McDonalds. Diversification of new products can increase their market share. They can reduce their prices because of more resources. Threats: Pizza Hut’s number one threats are from their competitors. Currently, Their closest competitor is Domino’s Pizza who is working to open their Branch at Karachi. Domino’s main competitive advantage over Pizza Hut is their Lower price. ii. Little Caesar’s who is establishing their self in India and might move to i. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 10 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Pakistan is another one of Pizza Hut’s competitors, right behind Domino’s in market share. Little Caesar’s is famous for offering large quantities of pizza for less money. iii. New entrance like Dominos pizza in Pakistan market can affect their market share. iv. Other local restaurants can affect their market share by providing pizzas with lower price. v. Social factors can affect their image as a Western organization. SEGMENTATION: Main segments which Pizza hut has captured are the combination of higher incomes and dual career families , due to higher income consumer have more disposable income , allowing them to eat out more often. Pizza Hut holds the most market share in the Pizza industry, the perceived quality and service of the company will help to ensure a better the average chance at a successful introduction of a new product. The introduction of a product that keeps with today trends is also important to reduce the risk of failure. Pizza Hut maximum market segment is younger generations. These generation ranges from 12 to 30, the overall spending of these generations is mostly on non essential items, the higher amount of spending has been done on eating out. POSITIONING Pizza Hut was among the first multinational brands to enter the food retail sector in Pakistan. When the first Pizza Hut restaurant opened in Karachi the quick service industry was at a nascent stage and the pizza category was dominated by a sole regional player who had a marginal presence. Pizza Hut went on to play a significant role in pioneering and developing this category in Pakistan. Worldwide and in Pakistan, Pizza Hut has come to become synonymous with the ‘best pizzas under one roof’. This is because at Pizza Hut the belief is that every pizza has its own magic, thus making it a destination product – which everyone seeks. It is this belief that has ignited the passion to create, innovate and serve the finest product the industry has to offer, while setting standards for others to strive to replicate. Pizza Hut is committed to providing uncompromising product quality, offering customers the highest value for money and giving service that is warm, friendly and personal. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 11 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut. A critical factor in Pizza Hut’s success has been its unique dining experience. Crew members at Pizza Hut strive each day to provide ‘CUSTOMER MANIA’ – the kind of service that ensures that every visit of the customer is a memorable one. Pizza Hut’s constant endeavor to provide extra value – whether it is pizzas which are available to suit every price range, new promotions or the introduction of innovative product ranges – that puts a ‘Yum’ on every customer’s face – has allowed it to increase its presence in Pakistan to the current 38 restaurants across 9 cities. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 12 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Market Targeting: Pizza hut targeted market defines them as a family product. This is because they don’t really directly market their customers. They are target everyone whereas their competitors target a certain gender or age. But pizza hut targets a wide range of customers. This is because they want to make the most money and who blames them. They have many competitors and they are bound to try everything to cope up tops. Their competitors are everywhere. There are just a few that are main competitors and pizza hut will always try to be the best and get the most money by making their products better quality but also cheaper. They try to offer something different with their product as well. They offer a range of stuffed crusts to try and attract customers. They also do vegetarian options with meet free pizzas and a salad and pasta bar. Not a lot of restaurants offer a salad and a pasta bar. This is another competitive idea to attract or customers. STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY PIZZA HUT: A business’s strategy is the pattern of decisions and actions that are taken by the business to achieve its goals. A business has a variety of goals and objectives. All businesses need to organize their business activities in order to achieve their business objectives. Running a business involves planning the current as well as future activities. Hence, in order to achieve the business objectives, all business organizations adopt different strategies. Similarly, Pizza Hut has adopted many strategies which help achieve the targets set by the main office to the local store opened at Peshawar. Changes are the external as well as internal environment has led Pizza Hut rethink their past strategies and has therefore designed new strategies after noticing the changes in the environment. These environmental changes are seen through the PEST and SWOT analysis. After considering all the factors Pizza Hut has decided upon the strategies and their current strategies are divided into five main categories and further have sub-parts. These strategies are: – Functional Strategies: These are strategies designed to improve the efficiency of a business’s operations. They often focus on an area, such as marketing, human resource etc. All business organizations adopt strategies at functional level as once the functional objectives are achieved, corporate objectives become easy. In order to make the functional strategy efficient, Pizza Hut has made all the functional departments co-operate with each other. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 13 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Total Quality Management (TQM): This is the most important for a food chain like Pizza Hut. All the employees’ backof-the-house i. e. the kitchen assistants are trained accordingly. They are given extra classes in order to meet the quality standards set by Pizza Hut around the world. This strategy is important in order to satisfy the CHAMPS. This strategy is strictly implemented in Pizza Hut in order to fulfill the quality standards. Different quality management staff is also there at Pizza Hut. The shift managers have the task to observe whether the quality standards are met or not, whereas there are a total quality management department at the main office in Karachi. This department has the task to implement quality standards and know whether they are achieved or not. Business Level Strategy: Business level strategies are plans made to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals in a market. Hence, all the businesses need to adopt business level strategies in order to compete in a competitive environment. If we take a look at the Pakistani market, there are no large competitors of Pizza Hut but unlimited small competitors exist in the market. The threat of competitors is very low as there is no international food chain offering pizza in Pakistan at present. Therefore, present strategies adopted by Pizza Hut are keeping in consideration the present competition. Whereas, in future this competition will increase and Pizza Hut will have to change all its business level strategies in order to compete with its rivals. In very near future Dominos is opening its first branch in Karachi. This would be a threat for Pizza Hut and hence, the strategies would be changed. Pricing Strategy: The level of competition a business faces determines its pricing strategy. Sometimes a business has the scope to set its price and sometimes a business cannot. When a business has the scope to set its price there is a number of pricing strategies or policies it might choose. As there are no such competitors of Pizza Hut which could compete with the quality of pizza produced at Pizza Hut, therefore, the pricing strategy adopted by Pizza Hut is ‘market skimming’. Pizza Hut has adopted this pricing strategy as they want to hold maximum share of the market by maximum profit. This is a golden era for Pizza Hut, as there are no competitors and hence, Pizza Hut is free to charge any price they want. They are charging higher prices due to the uniqueness of the product. They satisfy the target market as the food quality is worth the price paid. The pricing strategy is not just to get the worth Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 14 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut of quality but also to gain maximum profits before any competitor enters because then Pizza Hut will have to change its pricing strategy. Although the prices would be lowered with the new entrants in the market but not to a greater extent as the quality food products are not home-produced. They are imported from different countries keeping in view the best quality. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 15 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut Market Share: As there are Dozens of Pizza Suppliers Globally Providing Services in different part of the World, but Pizza Hut is the One who got the Bigger Market Share Globally. This is the Survey taken by www. survey. com that Pizza Hut is having 48% of Overall Pizza Market in the World. After that Dominos is leading with a percentage of 20% while the rest 32% is divided in the Remaining Pizza Providers Globally. MARKET SHARE OTHERS 32% PIZZA HUT PIZZA HUT 48% DOMINO’S OTHERS DOMINO’S 20% Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 16 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut FOUR P’S OF MARKETING. PRODUCT: Product refers to the actual program you are planning. The goal of pizza hut is to develop the best product with the resources available. Pizza Hut sells pizzas in four different sizes: personal (an individual serving), small, medium and large, though most stores have done away from with the small size. A variety of toppings are available, plus â€Å"specialty† styles, including Meat Lovers, Pepperoni Lovers, Cheese Lovers, Veggie Lovers, Double Cheeseburger, Supreme, Super Supreme and the newly introduced Pizza Mia. The pan pizza has a thicker crust than most other commercially available pizzas .so their products have help them to retain their customers and to increase them . they provide their customers with complete nutrition plan and healthy food is guaranteed. The nutrition plan also clearly tells diabetes patients can use what range of food at pizza hut. Over weight patients are also satisfied and the pizza with less cholesterol can be ordered. This encourages the customers to visit pizza hut rather than going elsewhere. As pizza hut has to boost its sales in the existing markets, so they the new food products are introduced in all branches line-by–line because all branches are operated in co-operation with one another. Different products for different regions are also developed as there are choice differences. Pizza hut offers a long list of products and never afraid to offer new products like in Peshawar according to market they introduce the very first â€Å"Chapli Kabab Pizza† which was very healthy product by Pizza hut in this region. There are a lot many products according to different geographical places. Like in India they have got there vegetable pizzas, which has a large market there BUT not the Cow Meat Pizza. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 17 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut. PRICE: . As there are no such competitors of Pizza Hut which could compete with the quality of pizza produced at Pizza Hut, therefore, the pricing strategy adopted by Pizza Hut is ‘market skimming’. Pizza Hut has adopted this pricing strategy as they want to hold maximum share of the market by maximum profit. This is a golden era for Pizza Hut, as there are no competitors and hence, Pizza Hut is free to charge any price they want. They are charging higher prices due to the uniqueness of the product. They satisfy the target market as the food quality is worth the price paid. The pricing strategy is not just to get the worth of quality but also to gain maximum profits before any competitor enters because then Pizza Hut will have to change its pricing strategy. Although the prices would be lowered with the new entrants in the market but not to a greater extent as the quality food products are not home-produced. They are imported from different countries keeping in view the best quality. First, this pricing strategy will help segment the market. Different groups of customers are willing to pay different prices for the same product. The high/low pricing strategy will also create excitement. The pricing strategy adopted by Pizza Hut is ‘market skimming’. Pizza Hut has adopted this pricing strategy as they want to hold maximum share of the market by maximum profit. This product will emphasize product and service quality PLACE/DISTRIBUTION: It refers to the best place to offer program. That is the place where it is located and through what channels are we distributing programs and the competitive advantage lies in distribution. The pizza hut Peshawar is situated out of the market area near Army Stadium and Shami road. This site has been chosen keeping in view the following factors. It is in an out of centre location on retail or Leisure Park with good parking accessibility. Secondly the catchment area is of a specified minimum size and within a given drive time to the site. Distribution The type of distribution channel used by Pizza Hut is the direct channel. The direct channel is successful when there is an extremely large market that is geographically dispersed. The direct channel is also useful when there are a large number of buyers, but a small amount purchased by each. Pizza Hut uses three different methods of selling its products directly to the market. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 18 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut i. The first method of distribution used by Pizza Hut is Home. Office delivery. Customers can call Pizza Hut ahead of time, place an order, and the order is delivered to the customer’s home. can go to the nearest Pizza Hut, place an order and either leave with the order or eat at the restaurant. One of Pizza Hut’s largest competitive advantages is its restaurant style facility. Pizza Hut offers a clean place to sit down and enjoy the variety of pizzas, salads, and sandwiches in a fun, family atmosphere. ii. Another method of distribution is for customers to dine-in. Customers iii. The third method of distribution is to order Online. Selective County Customers can now go on the Internet and place an order for Pizza. This method is useful because it allows customers to view the entire menu, download any special coupons, and order without having to disclose any credit card numbers. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 19 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut PROMOTION: The objectives of promotion are to introduce a new product, stimulate demand, change the short-term behavior of the customers, and encourage repeat or greater usage by current customers. Pizza hut uses many promotional strategies. The main promotion is a coupon to purchase. This promotion is also distributed mainly by mail, but also by fliers on college campuses around the country in order to reach the target market. They are using billboards on main stream places to get there customer. They are also distributing door to door brochures to capture more and more customers. Pizza huts also using marketing techniques. These are the strategies Pizza hut is using for its marketing. Pizza huts try’s to attract the younger generation as their main market segment. Apart from this Pizza Hut is using intense marketing strategies they are also giving ads in magazines. Advertising camping will creates awareness of the products in our target markets. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 20 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut CONCLUSION Pizza Hut has many targets which it has achieve in a given period of time. The time-period is mostly a year. Therefore, in order to fulfill the targets different strategies are adopted by Pizza Hut. It can be concluded that these strategies have been successful and there is flexibility in the strategies, as they can be changed with the changes in the market conditions as well as the targets. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan Page 21 Report and Marketing Strategies of Pizza Hut REFERENCES Mr. Amir Zeb, Shift Manager, Pizza Hut, Peshawar Mr. Hamad Zeb, Shift Manger, Pizza Hut, Peshawar Lower staff of Pizza Hut, Peshawar Google Search Engine www. definitions. com www. answers. com www. about. com www. wikipedia. org www. pizzahut. com Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar Pakistan  .