Friday, May 31, 2019
The Patriot Act.On September 11, 2001 Muslim terrorists instilled with a hatred of the west attacked the United States in a brutal fashion. Planes were hijacked and flown into the World Trade Center in New York. Over three thousand people were killed and the impregnable nation k straightn as the States was know scared and vulnerable. Almost immediately the legislature began drafting an act that would make the war on terror and the fight for homeland security a little easier to fight, this would come to be known as the Patriot ActPATRIOT is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by providing Appropriate Tools Required to interrupt and Obstruct Terrorism. The Patriot Act allows the government and law enforcement agencies to have certain freedoms that have not been allowed since before the attacks. The most controversial part of the Act is that superintendence guidelines have been relaxed along with investigative guidelines, while no system of checks to safeguard civil libe rties are provided (Podesta)Another problem that is somewhat alarming was the quickness and surge with which the act was introduced-less than a week after the attacks. President Bush signed the Act on October 26 with no House, Senate, or conference reports. (Podesta) The Act is an enlargement of the Anti Terrorism Act of 2001 (ATA) which was also intended to strengthen America against terrorism. Both acts expand the ability of law enforcement and an intelligence agency, the only difference is that the ATA contained safeguards against violations of constitutional rights. One of the safeguards was known as the sunset provision, which stated that certain sections of the Act expired after a period of time if it was not re-create by congress. Due to the fear and pandemonium our country was suffering the implementation of the Patriot Act commenced without any sort of judicial oversight. This has caused people to be discontentment with the violation of their constitutional civil liber ties. In the months before September 11, 2001 many ideas and provisions that are found in the Act were already being proposed and debated, especially those relation to electronic surveillance. Podesta states that the topic of broadening electronic surveillance was criticized harshly but after the attacks people chose panic over their misgivings. This is why the act passed so quickly.Podesta warns that many of ... ... an inferno. But its my toy they would complain, and your duty as a parent would be to tell them that trying to hold on to that toy would result in a serious injury to themselves and people around them. Civil liberties will come back to America in the coming years but for now I want my security to be first priority. Works CitedFrieden, Terry. Attorney general defends Patriot Act CNN.ComApr. 6, 2005 http//edition.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/04/05/patriot.actHatch, Orrin G. "Judiciary Statement America After 9/11 Freedom Preserved Or Freedom Lost?" Before the Senate Com mittee on the Judiciary. Nov. 18, 2003. http//hatch.senate.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.View&PressRelease_id=215260Masci, David. "Civil Liberties in Wartime." The CQ Researcher Online 11.43 (2001). 4 whitethorn 2005 http//library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2001121400. Document ID cqresrre2001121400.Podesta, John. The USA Patriot Act The Good, the Bad and the Sunset. Winter, 2002. http//www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatriot/The American Civil Liberties Union. "Civil Liberties after 9/11". 2004. http//www.garynull.com/Documents/ACLU/911_Report.htm
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The Maudsley imitate of family-based give-and-take for anorexia nervosaThe Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa was first certain in London in the mid-1980s. In this model, pargonnts are given the a primary role in treatment, working together as a team in the home setting to reefed their nipper and confront anorexic behavior. Parents are also encouraged to separate anorexia from the child while performing this task, blaming the anorexia rather than the child and therefore minimizing the escalation of expressed emotion (Rhodes, Gosbee, Madden, & Brown, 2005). Treatment also includes a family meal where family members are coached to take on their specific roles.Siblings are incorporated in treatment to ease the patients distress resulting from this parental challenge to anorexia. They provide emotional support to their sister or brother. The siblings are not involved in the decisions about food or in monitoring eating, which is up to the parents. Inste ad, siblings throw out be person to complain to, a shoulder to cry on, or someone to distract them from the difficult task of eating. Siblings can be an incredible resource for helping an adolescent in their recovery.Once safe eating and weight are achieved through parental intervention, responsibility for these issues was gradually handed back to the adolescent. A shorter and final phase of treatment is then completed to help the family resume usual adolescent development after the delays caused by the anorexia. The efficacy of this approach has been established in a number of controlled trials (Rhodes et al., 2005). Despite the demonstrated efficacy and excellent outcomes of the Maudsley model of family-based treatment for anorexia, another tre... ...ther parents is a logical step to overcome issues isolation and creates a sense of solidarity. Peer support and criticism are powerful dynamics that can promote change, and being in the presence of other families has the effe ct of making the adolescent and their parents feel less central. They are a part of a large group, and the feeling of being constantly watched and observed by a professional is less intense. With the integration of the Maudsley method and multiple family therapy, family tension and dispute can be reduced, and a cooperative and supportive atmosphere and working environment can be created for adolescents and their families (Rhodes et al., 2005). Working alongside each other allows parents and teens to compare notes and retard from each other. Families are consultants to other families, and they are there to help one another.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Ageism is prejudice in which people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age (Berger, 2008). Our western subtlety has embedded ageism into our e rattlingday lives, and we may not be able to identify the ageist behavior when it occurs. Older adults are frequently given negative labels such as senile, sad, lonely, poor, sexless, ill, dependent, demented, and disabled. (McGuire, Klein, Shu-Li, 2008) It is inevitable that we result experience decline in physical and mental capacities. However, the timing, quality, and degree of the aging process are highly variable and very different for each individual. General assumptions and stereotypes about aging are harmful to individual senior adults and do not benefit society.After World state of war II ended in 1945, veterans returned home to get married and start families which resulted in a baby boom. This extension, which has been dubbed Baby Boomers, was born between 1946 and 1964. In 2011 this g eneration will begin to reach age 65, which is a pivotal age for senior adults. In 2050, the number of Americans aged 65 and older is projected to be 88.5 million, more than double its projected population of 40.2 million in 2010. The baby boomers are largely responsible for this increase in the older population, as they will begin crossing into this category in 2011. (US Census Bureau, 2010). With our population shifting to an older demographic, ageism will weigh heavily on our society and the splendour of researching, discussing and finding solutions to ageism will come to the forefront.By definition, ageism is a form of discrimination that can occur at any age. However, it is the senior population that has been distressed the most. Only a few of the man... ...70802042123.Palmore, E. (2004). Research note Ageism in Canada and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19(1), 41-46. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.Palmore, E. (2005). deuce-ac e decades of research on ageism. Generations, 29(3), 87-90. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.Ryan, E., Jin, Y., Anas, A., & Luh, J. (2004). Communication beliefs about youth and old age in Asia and Canada. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19(4), 343-360. doi10.1023/BJCCG.0000044688.27282.7b.US Census Bureau (2010), The next four decades The older population in the United States 2010 to 2050, Retrieved from http//www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p25-1138.pdf Zhou, L. (2007). What college students know about older adults A cross-cultural qualitative study. Educational Gerontology, 33(10), 811-831. doi10.1080/03601270701364545.
The stillbirth Question The goodity of induced abortion is one of the close controversial moral issues of our time. Abortion has grown to be one, if no the most, debated argument of modern times. In the following web-page, we will be discussing abortion in three of its major aspects worldly concern Opinion, Congress and Courts, and Interest groups. Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy before birth, resulting in the death of the embryo or fetus. Abortion is an issue in which most people pass on an opinion on. Whether it is pro-life or pro-choice, most opinions do reflect the individual and their personal opinions in life. As will be discussed only on, there is a great dividend in the population concerning their sides in this matter. Both the Legislative and Judiciary branches of government have played an important role in the history and present time on this issue. Policies and other actions have been taken throughout legislature to either prevent or encourage abortion. Interes t Groups have also played an important role in influencing legislature with their votes. Today, there exist a great number of both(prenominal) pro-life and pro-choice active groups who try to change policies reflecting their opinions. For more general information regarding abortionOn Abortion A Lincolnian Position Public OpinionAbortion is an issue, both politically and socially, that has been debated and discussed throughout a number of decades. The disagreement have lead to a number of policies, and other causes of action. Abortion has become such an important dilemna, that nigh people find it as a major contributor in their political ideologies and preferences. Public opinion, therefore, is the root to many of these changes and ideas of thinking. Publ... ... Supreme Court usurp the legislative role of the government? Are the privacy rights created by Roe V. Wade in the Bill of Rights? One thing is certain. Although this ruling was made 25 old age ago, the legacy of Roe V. Wa de is stronger today than ever before. Supreme Court Decisions Concerning Reproductive RightsNARAL FactsheetsBibliographyJanda. Berry. Goldman. The Challenge of Democracy. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. New york. Fifth Ed.Mitchell, Alison. Both Sides Rally to Mark Abortion Ruling. The New York multiplication 23 January 1998 19.Rodame, Hyman. Betty Sarvis. Joy Walker Bonar. The Abortion Question. Columbia University Press, New York 1987Seelye, Katharine. Advocates of Abortion Rights Report a Rise in Restrictions. The New York Times 15 Jan. 199816.Singer, Peter. Rethinking Life And Death.St. Martins Griffin, New York.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Breast Cancer The thought of having breast pubic louse is frightening to every woman, and devastating to some. However, ignoring the possibility that you may get breast cancer, or avoiding the things you should do to detect and avoid cancer, can be even more dangerous.Breast cancer is a devastating disease that may affect one out of nine women in the United States. This year alone, a patient will be diagnosed every three minutes and a woman will die from breast cancer every thirteen minutes. Unfortunately, there is still little know about the diseases cause or cure. Currently the further means of increasing a breast cancer victims mishap of survival is early detection by annual breast exams and education about the disease. A professional high quality mammogram is the most reliable bearing to find breast cancer as early as possible. By the time a lump can be felt in a womans breast, it is usually bigger than the size of cancers that can be found with a mammogram. About twenty five percent of breast cancers ar found through monthly exams and thirty five percent are found through mammograms. They rate of cancers discovered increases to nearly forty percent when fleshly exams and mammograms are used. Women are urged to do both. Educating women about breast cancer has become increasing important. Recently, an alarming survey, conducted by the American Cancer Society, showed that many women have improper perceptions about their risk of getting breast cancer. Nearly half of the women believed their chances of evolution cancer were as much as fifty percent, when in reality it is only eleven percent. Also, many women thought that their risk of getting breast cancer was highest in their thirties and fourths, when in ... ... and to kill cancer cells if they ever develop. A heavy(a) number of studies also back up a link between alcoholic beverage intake and an increased chance of developing breast cancer. Overall women that deglutition an average of three drinks a day have a forty percent higher chance of developing the disease verses non-drinkers. Research has found that alcohol alters the way a womans body metabolizes estrogen. As estrogen levels rise, the risk of developing the disease does also. Above all, the important thing to remember is that having no risk factors should not give you a false sense of security. It is vital for each woman to be aware of their own personal risk factors for developing cancer, and what they can do to decrease their chances with simple lifestyle changes. Women are encouraged to talk to their doctors and do their own research to further inform themselves.
Breast Cancer The mentation of having breast cancer is frightening to every char, and devastating to some. However, ignoring the possibility that you whitethorn get breast cancer, or avoiding the things you should do to detect and avoid cancer, can be even more dangerous.Breast cancer is a devastating indisposition that may affect one out of nine women in the United States. This year alone, a patient will be diagnosed every three proceeding and a woman will die from breast cancer every thirteen minutes. Unfortunately, there is still little known about the diseases cause or cure. Currently the only means of increasing a breast cancer victims chance of survival is early contracting by annual breast exams and education about the disease. A professional high quality mammogram is the most reliable way to find breast cancer as early as possible. By the time a lump can be felt in a womans breast, it is ordinarily bigger than the size of cancers that can be found with a mammogram. About twenty five percent of breast cancers are found through monthly exams and thirty five percent are found through mammograms. They rate of cancers discovered increases to nearly forty percent when physical exams and mammograms are used. Women are urged to do both. Educating women about breast cancer has become increasing important. Recently, an alarming survey, conducted by the American Cancer Society, showed that many women have incorrect perceptions about their risk of acquire breast cancer. Nearly half of the women believed their chances of developing cancer were as much as fifty percent, when in reality it is only eleven percent. Also, many women thought that their risk of getting breast cancer was highest in their thirties and fourths, when in ... ... and to kill cancer cells if they ever develop. A large number of studies also bear out up a link between alcohol intake and an increased chance of developing breast cancer. Overall women that drink an average of thr ee drinks a day have a forty percent higher chance of developing the disease verses non-drinkers. Research has found that alcohol alters the way a womans body metabolizes estrogen. As estrogen levels rise, the risk of developing the disease does also. Above all, the important thing to remember is that having no risk factors should not perish you a false sense of security. It is vital for each woman to be aware of their own personal risk factors for developing cancer, and what they can do to come down their chances with simple lifestyle changes. Women are encouraged to talk to their doctors and do their own research to further inform themselves.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Essay Title Roles In The Society In modern society, every integrity has polar characters to play with each role we play there is a different of characteristic, sometimes we have to perform against our wills to meet a criterion of the roles. I had an experience of role distancing in last years summer tentinging ground out which to be one of the instructor, the expression I had given to the children is very serious, but it doesnt mean I am a serious person, its because I get to go into my role.As the instructor, its a job of education, the experience I got from the camp refers to Functionalism view of education it provides pathways into the structure of society. Last summer I act in Taylor Statten over night Camp as the instructor, the campers are ages from 10-14. The camp was mainly outdoor activities, which leading the kids to experience the nature of forest, and only one-hour indoor activities daily. It was my setoff time to be the instructor. Basically we spent all day with the kids, and distributed different tasks to them and particulate within the tasks.The outdoor activities included hiking, canoeing and campfires indoor activities include performing humanistic discipline and handwork. The instructors need to consider kids safety and train them the ability of strain capacity, in order to strengthen their mind and body. During the time I had spent as the instructor, I experienced role distancing. As Brym and Lie mentioned in the textbook, role distancing involves giving the impression of just going through the motions and that we lack serious commitment to a role (Brym and Lie 2012 83).People call for to make good impression of the role they are playing, but if individual happens to disagree with the expectations of the role they are playing, the individual want to give others an impression of the role they are playing are not who they really are. When people interact with others, according to Brym and Lie onstage, people typically sample to plac e themselves in the best possible cleverness (Brym and Lie 2012 83). Role distancing is the distance from the role you are being required to play and the act of presenting yourself.There is one particular example of role distancing during my experience in the hike activity in the camp. Being as the instructor we cannot helping kids to terminus their tasks, but we need to ensure kids always stay in the safety environment. When we hike toward our camping station, everyone has to exsert his or her own baggage, which includes your camp equipment and daily supplies. The baggage was heavy to carry on some kids told me that they felt the baggage is the same weight as them.When we hike through the forest, lots of kids fell on the ground because its baffling to walk in the forest with a heavy backpack, some of them asked for our help, as the true me I would definitely help them out, because few kids seemed not strong plenteous to carry the baggage, but as the instructor I couldnt help, its against the policy. During the last few days of the camp, I explained to the kids that I require you to finish all the difficult tasks by yourselves because I performed my duty, however, Im not a mean person.It is the role Im playing distanced from my true self. The finis I had after experienced of role distancing according to functionalism. First, the radical solidarity is extremely important, in the hiking activity, we all need to have shared beliefs of arrive at camp station before sunset because we still have to set tents when we arrived, I need to be serious with kids so they could understand more of the circumstance.Besides I felt being the role of instructor, I need to maintain group stability, because during hiking two girls cried, they asked to go back home because they are tired and scared, as the instructor I have to comfort them and persuade them to keep going. However, overcome the moody emotion is the most important issue of stability. At the same time re-establi sh equilibrium of fleshly and mentally are extremely important, take several breaks during hiking, I share some funny stories to the kids during the break, in order to help kids to re-establish equilibrium.How functionalism helps me understand this experience of role distancing is being the instructor of the camp are part of this camp structure, I played an important role as part of the hiking activity, mainly to maintain group solidarity, stability with same belief and value shared and re-establish equilibrium kids minds and bodies to achieve our goal. We play different roles everyday, the roles we play that we want to perform the best possible light of ourselves in front of others.The discipline of these rule sometime distance ourselves from the rule, being the instructor in the summer camp I have to perform a different person against my own will of handling situations, but the character I played was importantly within the camp organization. The instructor help the camp accomplis hed the function they perform in the society, help children improve themselves meanwhile to improve the future of society.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Table of Contents QUESTION 12 1. 1Role of intercourse2 1. 2 Positive educator-learner relationships2 1. 3Learner lodge in a multicultural classroom2 QUESTION 23 2. 1 Improve learner motivation in classroom3 2. 2 Draw up the following of a positive classroom policy3 2. 2. 1Aims and objectives of our class3 2. 2. 2Rules of our classroom3 2. 2. 2Task division3 2. 3 Define the following concepts3 2. 3. 1 Leadership3 2. 3. 2 Control3 2. 3. 3 Intrinsic motivation3 2. 3. 4 Communication4 2. 3. 5 conjunct learning4 2. 4 Autocratic and democratic styles4 2. 5 Conveying essence4 QUESTION 35 Introduction5Five elements of delictual liability5 1. Act or contr set5 2. Wrongfulness5 3. Fault5 4. Causation6 5. Harmful consequence6 Contributory Fault6 Conclusion6 REFERENCES7 QUESTION 1 1. Role of communication Any relationship, without communication would collapse. To create a positive atmosphere in classroom communication has to occur. What is communication? Coetzee, train Niekerk and Wyderma n (2008 82) describe communication as the transmittal of an idea by someone (the sender) and the understanding in that respectof by another (the receiver). Thus, the educator moldiness be understood by the learner and learner must be understood by educator when conversing.Role of communication involves creating an understanding by the setting of ground rules, creating open professional dialogue with learners, holding personal discussions and establishment of better relationships with learner. For the above responsibilities to be of impact, the educator involved need to adhere and fully commit him or herself into achieving each task profoundly. 1. 2 Positive educator-learner relationships concord to Pianta (19991), positive educator-learner relationships atomic number 18 characterized by open communication, as well up as emotional and academic support that exist between learners and educators.Positive educator-learner relationships expire particularly significant during early adolescence, as learner move from the supportive environment of primary school to the more disjointed atmosphere of a high school. They also become important for ensuring good academic performance from learners. I know this because the classes I enjoyed (when I was still a learner) were the ones I did well in. So for me to do well in those classes I had to be internally happy in the class. This goes inline with what a theorist once wrote that any performance including academic performance is a return of ability multiplied by motivation.Motivation is intrinsic and involves emotion. If educator requires learners to perform the educator has to motivate the learner in order for the learner to perform at the crush of his or her ability. A motivated learner will perform well academically and whence the educator will be satisfied by the outcome, resulting in a positive atmosphere in the classroom. 3. Learner participation in a multicultural classroom The first thing to do is to le arn around the different cultures in the classroom from cultural insiders, learners, books and internet.Adopt a story-telling teaching method whereby the learner will get an opportunity to sh ar an experience using his or her past experience in his or her cultural background environment e. g. having a Zimbabwean in class should lead you to asking that learner virtually how certain thing in South Africa will he or she perform in Zimbabwe. They should share this knowledge also in oral and pen form. Team work or group work should be adopted and the desks in the class should arrange as such. How the learners sit in class does also promote their participation. Each group should reflect diversity.When the individual learner or group ask question, the educator, is recommended to respond in a positive unbiased port to the learner question so to encourage repeated questioning behaviour. It is essential for the school to allow educator to undergo diversity development workshops so that th ere can be an understanding and respect of cultural differences in the classroom. Acknowledge each culture hero and communicate all culture holidays. Treat multicultural learners equally do not have culture favourites. QUESTION 2 2. 1 Improve learner motivation in classroom a) Reward learners (Tom 20081). ) film sure course has real value (Tom 20081). c) Help learners perform better (Tom 20081). d) Set clear expectations for the course (Tom 20081). e) Tell them theyre wrong when wrong (Tom 20081). 2. 2 Draw up the following of a positive classroom policy 2. 2. 1Aims and objectives of our class The objectives are a breakdown of the classroom vision. These objectives must be immaterial objectives (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-limited) (Coetzee et al. 2008 6). 2. 2. 2Rules of our classroom There must be an organization and management plan in place that will enforce efficient rules and procedures.They must be consistently followed and in which the educator and the learner clearly understand expectation of the learner behavior (Coetzee 2006 40). 2. 2. 2Task division The task division must be distinct and clear. It must be according the class ability and standard of achievement. 2. 3 Define the following concepts 2. 3. 1 Leadership Leadership is about inspiring persons or groups to such an extent that they willingly and enthusiastically work to accomplish set aims (van Niekerk 1995 4). 2. 3. 2 Control Controlling is assessing the work done and being done to re-align and condemn it when necessary (Study guide 2006 25). . 3. 3 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation means that a person works because of an inner desire to be roaring at a certain task (Coetzee et al 2008 103). 2. 3. 4 Communication Communication can be described as the transmitting of an idea by someone (the sender) and the understanding thereof by another (the receiver) (Coetzee et al 2008 82). 2. 3. 5 Cooperative learning Can be defined as a squad approach to learning w here each member of the group is dependent on the other members to accomplish a specific learning task or identification (Coetzee et al 2008 108). 2. Autocratic and democratic styles Autocratic style It is characterised by the strong leadership role of the educator namely One-way communication. Little opportunity for originative thinking. Learner participation is usually more passive. Rigid discipline. The educator is more reserved (unapproachable). Democratic style It is characterised by a calm and inviting teaching attitude, namely Self-expression by learners. A team spirit between educator and learners. The use of variety of sources, so that the educator is not the only source. 2. 5 Conveying messageIn a model for understanding communication, the communication recitation is described as the steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transportation of meaning. There is a need for a purpose (expressed as message) onward communication can take place. To c reate that message the source had to initiate the process by a thought (idea, instruction, request). Then the source converts the message into a symbolic form. The message is then communicated through the medium called the channel. The receiver then decodes the message by assigning meaning to the message.Through feedback it will be then determined whether the understanding is achieved or not (Coetzee et al 2008 86). QUESTION 3 Introduction The honor of delict is a section of private law. This branch of law deals with civil wrongs against another person that cause the hurt party to go to court to seek salary from the wrongdoer for indemnification (Coetzee et al, 2008 226). In the law of delict, also called tort law in some countries, a art of care has to be established before anyone can be held liable for damages suffered because of his or her negligent behaviour (Beloff, Kerr & Demetriou in Rossouw, 1999112).In this assignment, an analysis would be made regarding the duty of ca re that should have existed and was owed by the team passenger car and the school. The analysis would be made in reference to the five elements of a delict action or conduct, wrongfulness, tarnish, causation and hurtful consequence. The elements are then applied to the scenario and then it will be concluded if the team coach is liable or not and if there is not any contributory interruption of the fake. Five elements of delictual liability 1. Act or conduct According to Coetzee et al (2008 226) to constitute a delict, one person (e. g. he educator) must have caused harm or damage to another by his or her action or conduct. The conduct must be a voluntary human action and whitethorn be either a positive action (i. e. doing something) or an omission (i. e. failure to do something). In the scenario, due to the team coachs conduct of not inspecting the basket ball ground (i. e. failure to do something). and also, instructing the injured (bleeding) player to phone his parents while b leeding- this requirement is met (i. e. doing something) or. 2. Wrongfulness Coetzee et al (2008 226) state that the act (conduct) that causes harm must be wrongful i. e. t must be legally reprehensible or unreasonable in terms of legal convictions of the community, To testify for unlawfulness, the boni mores principle is applied. The question here is whether the harm caused was unjustified in the circumstances. Most types of sport have ordinary as well as unexpected dangers. Referring to these dangers, smith (20021) states that it is prudent for a coach in the discharging of his or her duty to provide players with adequate warning. This is called the disclosure requirement and implies that coaches cannot assume that participants know the dangers, even when they are very obvious.Therefore, the team coach was wrong for not inspecting the ground before the players practice on it. He was also wrong for telling the player to do the phone call while injured. This requirement is met. 3 . Fault The act must be the result of fault in the form of an intent (dolus) or omission (culpa). The fault refers to the blameworthy attitude or conduct of someone who has acted wrongfully (Coetzee et al 2008 226). Regarding the playing field, surrounding grounds and other facilities, proper measures should be in place to safeguard all participants.Dangerous objects in the vicinity of playing fields should be removed or properly covered (Rossouw 200437). According to the scenario, it was the coach fault the player was injured. He should have inspected the ground so that the protruding steel could be identified. This requirement is met. 4. Causation There must be a causative link between the conduct of the perpetrator and the harm suffered by the victim (Coetzee et al 2008 227). When injuries do occur, the coach should assess whether a player is fit to train, and information should be supervised in a proper way.Normally these assessments can be done without any immediate pressure , but when an on-field injury occurs, the liability of the coach whitethorn become a real issue (Rossouw 200437). Smith (20022) refers to Mogabgob v Orleans Parish School Board 239 2d 456 (1970) where a coach sent a player to hospital after two hours, whilst he actually needed urgent attention due to heat stroke and exhaustion. The player subsequently died and the court held the coach liable, because evidence suggested that the player would have survived if medical treatment had been administered sooner.In the scenario, the injury of the player might complicate because it is a head injury. The coach did not assess (according to the assumption scenario) the injured player and seems to care less and instructs the player to phone his or her parents. This is simple negligence from the couch and will result to a medical complication. This requirement is met. 5. Harmful consequence Since a delict is a wrongful and culpable act which has a harmful consequence, damages (causing harm) in th e form of patrimonial (material) loss or non -patrimonial loss must be present.It is a basic duty of a coach to do everything in his or her power to prevent injuries to players (Coetzee et al 2008 227). In the scenario the damages the player has suffered non-patrimonial damages. This requirement is met. Contributory Fault Contributory fault involves some of fault (in the form of negligence) on the part of injured person. This results when learner fails to exercise duty of care for someone in his or her age, then the court may decide that the negligent educator is not solely liable for damages resulting from an injury (Coetzee et al 2008 230).According to the scenario, the players conduct was good because he was on the ground practising. The team coach on behalf of his school had to inspect the bailiwick High School basketball ground. That was not the responsibility of the player. Regarding phone call to his parents if he carries on according to the coachs instruction he cannot be held liable simply because head injuries can be associated with brain malfunctioning. Thus, he might not be thinking clearly. Conclusion It can then be concluded that there was no contributory fault on the player part. All the five required elements have been met.In South African law, when these five elements are present, the team coach (educator) can be found guilty of delict. This is due to the fact that the team coach by acting negligently caused damages to the injured player. Now, the player will need to be compensated for the loss suffered in the court of law (Basson & Loubser, 2001 Ch5, 11). REFERENCES Basson JAA & Loubser MM 2001. Sport and the Law in South Africa. Butterworths, Durban. In Rossouw, J. P. 2004. Where gentility law and sport law meet the duty of care of the educator-coach in South African schools North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus.SA-Educ JOURNAL Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 28-40. Coetzee, SA, van Niekerk, EJ & Wyderman JL. 2008. An educators guide to effective classroom management. Pretoria Van Schaik. McInnes-Wilson Lawyers. In Rossouw, J. P. 2004. Where education law and sport law meet the duty of care of the educator-coach in South African schools North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus. SA-Educ JOURNAL Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 28-40. Pianta, R. C. , 1999. Enhancing Relationships between Children and Teachers. Washington, D. C. American Psychological Assn. In Forming positive student-teacher relationships Online Available http//www. edu. niu. edu/shumow/itt/StudentTchrRelationships. pdf Rossouw, J. P. 2004. Where education law and sport law meet the duty of care of the educator-coach in South African schools North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus. SA-Educ JOURNAL Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 28-40. Smith F 2002. Liability for coaches and school authorities in school spo rt. MW Education Update. Brisbane Tom. S. 2008. Motivate Your Learners with These 5 Simple Tips Online Available http//www. articulate. com/rapid-elearnin g/motivate-your-learners-with-these-5-simple-tips/
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Coca Cola a Vending Machine Case Study Problem Statement Coca Cola Co. , the worlds largest beverage company is facing a familiar relation nightmare which can ultimately put their brand image at s sham. Their Chairman and CEO, Ivan Ivester, unawares announced the introduction of interactive sell technology which leave alone lower the price of coke during off-peak buying time and increase the price during very white-hot weather conditions, Ivester virtually confirmed the hawking machines will be introduced to the market soon.The core problem is not if the vending machine should be brought to market save WHEN and what the public relations/marketing strategy should be in the midst of the current media scrutiny to rebuild loyalty with avid coke drinkers and nose candys image. Critical Factors Increasing the vending machine profit, which has been the main profit resource for the company, serves the purpose of the parvenue technology. Sales of soft drinks are on the rise. Last yea r, well-nigh 11. 9 % of soft drinks world- wide derived from vending machines. Intelligent vending has already begun in Japan using the same technology.Taking full advantage of the law of run and demand, price fluctuations occur all the time in several industries such as the airline and movie industries and are not new to the general public. It oftentimes occurs when the supply for any product is high and the demand is low basic economics. Price discrimination also can occur demographically or geographically and is firmly to eliminate from a customers mind once disc lagd in a negative light ultimately setting the stage to lose customers to Cokes 1 competitor, PepsiCo. Additionally, their brand image is at stake.Ivesters statements regarding the new technology was disclosed too soon and the response from the public relations group was not sufficient to the loyal coke drinkers and the media, spurring several negative articles and backlash from their customers. Strategic Alternati ves Option A. Eliminate any option of introducing the interactive vending machines to the public in the near future and create a new public relations and marketing strategy stress on Cokes loyalty to its customers to let in re-establishing the value of drinking coke during extreme hot and cold temperatures.Option B. Proceed with a plan to implement the intelligent vending machines at a later on date than plan originally plan, while working to develop a new public relations and marketing strategy to curtail the current media damage, focusing on Cokes loyalty to its customers and re-establish the value of drinking coke during any weather conditions. Evaluation of Alternatives Option A ?Pros Build trust with consumers on same train with competitors regarding technology. Cons This strategy does not coincide with the companys marking plan to pump more sales of the flagship coke into the market, most likely utilizing the heat painful vending machine as one of the core tactics to incre ase revenues. Option B ?Pros Technology availability and costs to implement the new vending machines is inexpensive due to falling prices of the temperature sensors and computer chips ? Internet connectivity associated with the technology makes it very easy to track daily and hourly demand based on fluctuations olibanum making it easy to determine the price point offered in any region ?The new public relations and marketing campaign will slowly educate the consumer of the inevitable ? Increase profitability during the peak season due to lower costs compared to competitors. ?Cons Run the risk of losing loyal customers due to the price gaps press many consumers to search for lower price from the competitors vending machine ? Largest competitor, PepsiCo announced they have did not have any plans to introduce the new technology Recommendation Option B Corrective measures must take place to implement a strategy of price changes.Coke must improve their public image with a well executed public relations and marketing strategy. Justification As a consumer, I am not sure wherefore corporations continue to insult our intelligence. If a product is in the testing stage, then it is just a matter of time before the new technology, (if worthy) is introduced to the market. R in this case, serves the sole purpose of creating new technology in order to maximize efficiency and costs, thus increasing profits. And, quite frankly there is nothing wrongly with a company trying to maximize profits.Vending machines have remained largely untouched by discounting and although the machines can automatically raise prices for its drinks in hot weather, in my panorama not too many consumers would notice. Coca Cola Co. can also be the first in the SDC market to introduce new innovation that will be able to effectively gauge the buying interests of their customer by the touch of a button. This technology will admirer to predict sale revenues and take the guesswork out of customers wants and needs.It will also allow Coca Cola Co, to always stay ahead of the competition and remained the leader in the industry. Additionally, price discrimination exists everywhere, across all industries and the new technology will connote increased efficiency for the entire SDC market. The public relations and marketing campaign will help to educate and prepare the average consumer of the inevitable introduction of heat sensitive vending machines. The goal in mind for the campaign is to continue to establish Coke as the number one thirst quencher regardless of the weather.
Friday, May 24, 2019
I. Introduction1.1 Background in that location be many things to do when students be having time together with their friends. They can parcel thoughts and feelings with each other or discuss homework, lessons and so forth. Topics will flow naturally when comfortable zone in the communication extradite been reached. Those are some(prenominal) of evidences which show that mint communicate with others. talk is an exchange of ideas, knowledge, etc. between individuals by using style in which all parties understand the language they use. Communication certainly involves more than one person, which means that there are more than one thought involved in the communication be beget everyone has different backgrounds, controls, etc. There are deuce positions in communication, they are as a sender and as receiver and they will take stoop to these positions. All communication has two parts a sender and a receiver. The sender has a message he or she intends to transmit, and s/he puts it in words, which, to her/him, best reflect what s/he is thinking. But many things can intervene to prevent the intended message from organism received accurately. (Burgess, 2013).Read moreDifferent reasons why people communicateessayMisunderstandings sometimes occur in this exchange of ideas in communication. The receiver hears but he does not listen. He does not absorb the points being made. It may because the receiver does not focus on what the sender or speaker has said. a few misunderstandings are language-related, the source of many of the misunderstandings can be traced to ambiguity in the speakers utterances. Other reasons for misunderstanding include mishearing and lack of humankind knowledge, namely, factors that also contribute to misunderstanding in intracultural communication., (Kaur 2011). There are some other factors which we will find that can cause misunderstanding in communication if we die our experiences in having communication with others.1.2 Purpose of makeu pThe purposes of this writing area) To find out the factors cause misunderstanding in communication, especially in the conversation which will be shown by the writer in the retroactive data section.b) To show what students usually talk close to when they are gathering with their friends.II. Retrospective DataEveryone certainly has experienced misunderstanding when have communication with others friends, relatives, teachers, etc. Misunderstanding not only occurs in communication involving different languages, cultures, etc. People communicate with other who has the same language can also experience misunderstanding in which. It happened to me, I communicated with my friends by using same language but I still have misunderstanding in the communication. Thus, in this paper, I try to analyze misunderstanding in communication that I have experienced with my friends.At that time, we were going to play card (bridge) while talking about the latest Korean movie. Everyone already had their cards that had been dealt. There three players in this gritty, namely, I, Ima and Anthi. Ima Apa film korea terbaru sekarang teman-teman? (what is the latest Korean movie, guys?) I and Anthi Emergency CoupleIma Iiih mau (Can I have the copy?)Anthi Bagus tau Maa (It is really amazing, Maa)I Iya bener dah Maa (Shes true, Maa)Ima Siapa main? (Who is the cast?)I Yang punya angka 3 keriting sih (Who has the 3-kinky card of course play first) They both looked at me and laughed. I thought for a moment about why they laughed at me and I just need a few minutes to understand why they did it. I Oooh.. (I see)I and Anthi Ji Hyo yang maiiin ( Ji Hyo is main character/ one of the casts)III. Analysis/DiscussionCommunication is a complex human activity that is successful about of the time. This, however, does not mean that understanding is granted or that it is always the case. Misunderstanding is a regular non-extraordinary feature of human interaction, whether communicative interaction is c ross-cultural or not (Dascal 1985 Brown 1995 in BOU-FRANCH, Patricia (2002)).The data is one of examples which shows that the misunderstanding could still exist even all the parties in the communication have the same culture, language and age. The misunderstanding is happened when I said Yang punya angka 3 keriting sih (Who has the 3-kinky card of course play first). I said that because I thought my friend, Ima, asked who played first or who had turn to start the game. I thought in that way because at that time I had just set my card and had ready to start playing the game and because I had the 3-kinky card. What is the importance of having the 3-kinky card? The rule of playing Jenderal using bridge card in Indonesia, particularly in Lombok, is the one who plays first is the person who has the 3-kinky card.If we analyze the data more deeply, we will find that misunderstanding in the communication happened because I did not focus on the conversation when Ima asked, Siapa main? (Who i s the cast?. I still focus on what we were talking about at the first talk but for the next I did not. It was not caused by lack of world knowledge because we can see from the conversation that at the end I understood or recognized that I had misunderstanding then I unbending it.IV. ConclusionIn conclusion, misunderstanding is a common thing that can happen in whether communicative interaction is cross-cultural or not. Misunderstanding caused by many factors such as ambiguity in the speakers utterances, lack of world knowledge, mishearing, etc. The data shows that the other factor that can cause misunderstanding in communication is being not focus on the conversation. Besides that, the data also shows one of what students usually talk about when they are gathering with their friends is the latest movie.V. ReferencesBOU-FRANCH, Patricia (2002) Misunderstandings and Unofficial Knowledge in Institutional Discourse, in David Walton & Dagmar Scheu (eds) Culture and Power Ac(unofficially )knowledging Cultural Studies in Spain, Bern Peter Lang. (pp. 323-341)Burgess, Heidi. Misunderstandings. beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted September 2003 . sKaur, Jagdish. Intercultural Pragmatics. Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 93116, ISSN (Online) 1613-365X, ISSN (Print) 1612-295X, DOI 10.1515/IPRG.2011.004, February 2011
Thursday, May 23, 2019
T here was reason to the fact that the element known as pure science was the freest form of life on the Foundation. In a Galaxy where the predominance and even survival of the Foundation still rested upon the superiority of its technology even despite its large access of somatic power in the last century and a half a certain immunity adhered to The Scientist. He was needed, and he knew it.Likewise, on that point was reason to the fact that Ebling Mis completely those who did not know him added his titles to his name was the freest form of life in the pure science of the Foundation. In a world where science was respected, he was The Scientist with capital letter and no smile. He was needed, and he knew it.And so it happened, that when another(prenominal)s bent their knee, he refused and added loudly that his ancestors in their time bowed no knee to any stinking mayor. And in his ancestors time the mayor was elected anyhow, and kicked out at will, and that the only people th at inherited anything by reclaim of birth were the congenital idiots.So it also happened, that when Ebling Mis clear-cut to allow Indbur to honor him with an audience, he did not wait for the usual rigid line of command to pass his request up and the favored reply down, scarce, having impel the little disreputable of his two formal jackets over his shoulders and pounded an odd hat of impossible design on one side of his head, and lit a forbidden cigar into the bargain, he barged past two ineffectually bleating guards and into the mayors palace.The stolon notice his excellence received of the intrusion was when from his garden he heard the gradually nearing uproar of expostulation and the say bull-roar of inarticulate swearing.Slowly, Indbur lay down his trowel slowly, he stood up and slowly, he frowned. For Indbur allowed himself a daily vacation from work, and for two hours in the early afternoon, weather permitting, he was in his garden. There in his garden, the blooms grew in squares and triangles, interlaced in a severe monastic tell apart of red and yellow, with little dashes of violet at the apices, and greenery bordering the unharmed in rigid lines. There in his garden no one disturbed him no oneIndbur peeled off his soil-stained gloves as he innovational toward the little garden door.Inevitably, he said, What is the meaning of this?It is the precise question and the precise wording thereof that has been put to the atmosphere on such occasions by an incredible variety of men since humanity was invented. It is not recorded that it has ever been asked for any purpose other than dignified effect.But the answer was literal this time, for Miss proboscis came plunging through with a bellow, and a shake of a fist at the ones who were still holding tatters of his cloak.Indbur motioned them away with a solemn, displeased frown, and Mis bent to pick up his ruin of a hat, shake roughly a quarter of the gathered dirt off it, thrust it under his armpit and sayLook here, Indbur, those unprintable minions of yours will be charged for one good cloak. Lots of good wear left in this cloak. He puffed and wiped his forehead with just a trace of theatricality.The mayor stood stiff with displeasure, and said haughtily from the peak of his five-foot-two, It has not been brought to my attention, Mis, that you have requested an audience. You have for certain not been assigned one.Ebling Mis flavoured down at his mayor with what was apparently shocked disbelief, Ga-LAX-y, Indbur, didnt you get my note yesterday? I handed it to a flunky in purple uniform day before. I would have handed it to you direct, but I know how you like formality.Formality Indbur turned up exasperated eyes. Then, strenuously, Have you ever heard of proper composition? At all future day times you are to submit your request for an audience, properly made out in triplicate, at the government office mean for the purpose. You are then to wait until the ordinary course o f events brings you notification of the time of audience to be granted. You are then to appear, properly clothed properly clothed, do you understand and with proper respect, too. You may leave.Whats wrong with my clothes? demanded Mis, hotly. Best cloak I had till those unprintable fiends got their claws on it. Ill leave just as curtly as I deliver what I came to deliver. Ga-LAX-y, if it didnt involve a Seldon Crisis, I would leave right now.Seldon crisis Indbur exhibited first interest. Mis was a great psychologist a democrat, boor, and rebel certainly, but a psychologist, too. In his uncertainty, the mayor even failed to put into words the inner pang that stabbed suddenly when Mis plucked a casual bloom, held it to his nostrils expectantly, then flipped it away with a wrinkled nose.Indbur said coldly, Would you follow me? This garden wasnt made for serious conversation.He felt better in his built-up chair behind his large desk from which he could look down on the few hairs tha t quite ineffectually hid Miss pink scalp-skin. He felt much better when Mis cast a series of automatic glances just about him for a non-existent chair and then remained standing in uneasy shifting fashion. He felt best of all when in response to a thoughtful pressure of the correct contact, a liveried underling scurried in, bowed his way to the desk, and laid thereon a bulky, metal-bound volume.Now, in order, said Indbur, once more insure of the situation, to make this unauthorized interview as short as possible, make your statement in the fewest possible words.Ebling Mis said unhurriedly, You know what Im doing these eld?I have your heralds here, replied the mayor, with satisfaction, together with authorized summaries of them. As I understand it, your investigations into the mathematics of psychohistory have been intended to duplicate Hari Seldons work and, eventually, trace the projected course of future history, for the use of the Foundation.Exactly, said Mis, dryly. When S eldon first established the Foundation, he was wise enough to include no psychologists among the scientists placed here so that the Foundation has always worked blindly along the course of historical necessity. In the course of my researches, I have based a good deal upon hints found at the Time Vault.I am aware of that, Mis. It is a waste of time to repeat.Im not repeating, blared Mis, because what Im going to tell you isnt in any of those reports.How do you mean, not in the reports? said Indbur, stupidly. How could-Ga-LAX-y, let me tell this my own way, you offensive little creature. Stop putting words into my mouth and questioning my every statement or Ill tramp out of here and let everything crumble around you. Remember, you unprintable fool, the Foundation will come through because it must, but if I walk out of here now you wont. pelt along his hat on the floor, so that clods of earth scattered, he sprang up the stairs of the dais on which the wide desk stood and shoving pape rs violently, sat down upon a arriver of it.Indbur thought frantically of summoning the guard, or using the built-in blasters of his desk. But Miss face was glaring down upon him and there was cryptograph to do but quail the best face upon it.Dr. Mis, he began, with weak formality, you must-Shut up, said Mis, ferociously, and listen. If this thing here, and his palm came down heavily on the metal of the bound data, is a sens of my reports throw it out. Any report I write goes up through some twenty-odd officials, gets to you, and then sort of winds down through twenty more. Thats fine if theres nada you dont want kept secret. Well, Ive got something confidential here. Its so confidential, even the boys working for me havent got wind of it. They did the work, of course, but each just a little unconnected piece and I put it together. You know what the Time Vault is?Indbur nodded his head, but Mis went on with loud enjoyment of the situation, Well, Ill tell you anyhow because Iv e been sort of imagining this unprintable situation for a Ga-LAX-y, of a long time I can read your mind, you puny fraud. Youve got your hand right near a little knob thatll call in about five hundred or so armed men to finish me off, but youre afraid of what I know youre afraid of a Seldon Crisis. Besides which, if you match anything on your desk, Ill knock your unprintable head off before anyone gets here. You and your bandit father and pirate grandfather have been blood-sucking the Foundation long enough anyway.This is treason, gabbled Indbur.It certainly is, gloated Mis, but what are you going to do about it? Let me tell you about the Time Vault. That Time Vault is what Hari Seldon placed here at the ascendant to help us over the rough spots. For every crisis, Seldon has prepared a personal simulacrum to help and explain. Four crises so farthermost 4 appearances. The first time he appeared at the height of the first crisis. The second time, he appeared at the moment just a fter the successful evolution of the second crisis. Our ancestors were there to listen to him both times. At the third and fourth crises, he was ignored probably because he was not needed, but recent investigations not included in those reports you have indicate that he appeared anyway, and at the proper times. Get it?He did not wait for any answer. His cigar, a tattered, dead ruin was finally sell of, a new cigar groped for, and lit. The smoke puffed out violently.He said, Officially Ive been trying to rebuild the science of psychohistory. Well, no one man is going to do that, and it wont get done in any one century, either. But Ive made advances in the more simple elements and Ive been able to use it as an excuse to intercede with the Time Vault. What I have done, involves the determination, to a pretty fair kind of certainty, of the take aim date of the next appearance of Hari Seldon. I can give you the exact day, in other words, that the coming Seldon Crisis, the fifth, wi ll reach its climax. How far off? demanded Indbur, tensely.And Mis exploded his bomb with cheerful nonchalance,Four months, he said. Four unprintable months, less two days.Four months, said Indbur, with uncharacteristic vehemence. Impossible.Impossible, my unprintable eye.Four months? Do you understand what that means? For a crisis to come to a head in four months would mean that it has been preparing for years.And why not? Is there a law of Nature that requires the process to mature in the full light of day?But nothing impends. Nothing hangs over us. Indbur almost wrung his hands for anxiety. With a sudden spasmodic recrudescence of ferocity, he screamed, Will you get off my desk and let me put it in order? How do you expect me to think?Mis, startled, lifted heavily and moved aside.Indbur replaced objects in their appropriate niches with a feverish motion. He was speaking quickly, You have no right to come here like this. If you had presented your theory-It is not a theory.I say it is a theory. If you had presented it together with your evidence and arguments, in appropriate fashion, it would have gone to the power of Historical Sciences. There it could have been properly treated, the resulting analyses submitted to me, and then, of course, proper action would have been taken. As it is, youve vexed me to no purpose. Ah, here it is.He had a sheet of transparent, silver paper in his hand which he shook at the bulbous psychologist beside him.This is a short summary I prepare myself weekly of foreign matters in progress. Listen we have completed negotiations for a commercial treaty with Mores, continue negotiations for one with Lyonesse, sent a delegation to some celebration or other on Bonde, received some complaint or other from Kalgan and weve promised to look into it, protested some sharp trade practices in Asperta and theyve promised to look into it and so on and so on. The mayors eyes swarmed down the list of coded notations, and then he carefully plac ed the sheet in its proper place in the proper folder in the proper pigeonhole.I tell you, Mis, theres not a thing there that breathes anything but order and peace-The door at the far, long end opened, and, in far too dramatically coincident a fashion to suggest anything but real life, a plainly-costumed notable stepped in.Indbur half-rose. He had the curiously swirling sensation of unreality that comes upon those days when too much happens. After Miss intrusion and wild fumings there now came the equally improper, hence disturbing, intrusion unannounced, of his depositary, who at least knew the rules.The secretary kneeled low.Indbur said, sharply, WellThe secretary addressed the floor, Excellence, Captain Han Pritcher of Information, returning from Kalgan, in disobedience to your orders, has according to prior instructions your order X20-513 been imprisoned, and awaits execution. Those accompanying him are being held for questioning. A full report has been filed.Indbur, in agony , said, A full report has been received. WellExcellence, Captain Pritcher has reported, vaguely, dangerous designs on the part of the new warlord of Kalgan. He has been given, according to prior instructions your order X20-651 no formal hearing, but his remarks have been recorded and a full report filed.Indbur screamed, A full report has been received. WellExcellence, reports have within the quarter-hour been received from the Salinnian frontier. Ships identified as Kalganian have been entering Foundation territory, unauthorized. The ships are armed. Fighting has occurred.The secretary was bent nearly double. Indbur remained standing. Ebling Mis shook himself, clumped up to the secretary, and tapped him sharply on the shoulder.Here, youd better have them release this Captain Pritcher, and have him sent here. Get out.The secretary left, and Mis turned to the mayor, Hadnt you better get the machinery moving, Indbur? Four months, you know.Indbur remained standing, glaze-eyed. Only on e finger seemed alive and it traced rapid jerky triangles on the smooth desk top before him.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Mo-tzu ( overly c in alled Mozi, Moz, or Micius in Latin) was a renowned philosopher in China back in about 390-470 B. C. during the time of the Hundred Schools Thought (Wikipedia, 2007). Having founded Mohism, he argued about the inadequacy of Confucianism and Daoism on the need for a mortal world to self-reflect and meditate upon oneself. He also insisted that, instead of rituals and singings, what human race beings need are acts of authenticity that does not include the use of drums, zithers, and pipes.He, therefore, stressed out To have music is wrong (Par. 1, Book VIII, Chapter XXXII). Main Body We all agreed that Mo-tzu presented a very well thought of argument against music. This can be seen when he stated, Although the body chouses they are comfortable, the mouth knows they are gratifying, the eyes know they are delightful, and the ears know they are pleasing, yet they are found not to be in accordance with the deeds of the sage-kings of antiquity and not to contribute to the benefits of the great deal at present. (Par. 1, Book VIII, Chapter XXXII)In saying this, he implied that music did not have anything to do with the greatness and success of the sage-kings that it did not fulfill the basic needs, contrary the boats and the carts that were built from the same contribution of the ancient citizens. It slowed production by wasting labor on things that are of no use. He stated, The levy of heavy taxes on the people to construct the big bell, the sounding drum, the chin and the she, and the yY and the sheng, is not at all helpful in the endeavor to procure the benefits of the world and destroy its calamities. therefore Mo-tzu said To have music is wrong. (Par. 3, Book VIII, Chapter XXXII) Mo-tzu is absolutely correct. Yet in spite of this, if people accept that music is not useful in getting the needs of this world, such as food, clothing, and rest (Par. 3, Book VIII, Chapter XXXII), then they must also understand that, just like music, philosophi cal system is just as worthless in acquiring the needs of this world, such as food, clothing, and rest (Par. 3, Book VIII, Chapter XXXII).In fact, as compared to music, philosophy presents greater cause for men to think deeply, and hang into sickness and chaos (with oneself or with the society) that, in turn, exacts them more prone to hunger, to state of undress, and to unrest. What philosophy has failed to give men, music could give with just a stroke or a beat of the instruments. True, musical instruments cannot be directly eaten and cannot cloth the naked, yet the instruments were also considered treasures in the long ago, which means that the owners could sell it for a chance to bargain food or clothing in exchange of the musical instruments.When it comes to giving rest, however, music has the capability to give rest to those who are bothered psychologically or biologically. Philosophy, on the other hand, cannot be exchanged for food, clothing, or rest, since it all runs in the mind of the wise men. Thinking about the statements of the wise will just make men hungrier, poorer with less clothing, and more troubled. I, therefore, stress outto have philosophy is totally wrong ConclusionMo-tzu failed to acknowledge that music is an art that sprouts from the very being of the individual. It is like painting, sculpture, literature, or the use of colors. It is an expression of what human beings feel, think of, believe in, or acknowledge. It comes from the mind. With this, it is very obvious that to say that music is totally wrong would also mean that philosophy is totally wrong, since the latter is also an expression of what human beings feel, think of, believe in, or acknowledge.Music comes from the mind just as philosophy comes from the mind. The only difference is that philosophy centers on chosen beingsthose who are more gifted and wisethan when compared to music, which is so ordinary and can be expressed by anyone who dreams of expressing himself. Yet th ey both come from the mind. Even if both have their own sides of gains, both are totally incapable of destroying calamities.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
This paper is based on the article titled Samsung vs Apple, The Battle for Design Dominance compose by Haydn Shaughnessy and retrieved from www. forbes. com. The article is about Samsung vs Apple executing a new foundation and platform for traffic outline. This is a key change in the business schema of the software organization. This material is very all important(p) and relevant to the course content of business dodging because of the following reasons ? It talks about business strategy of one of the leading cell phone organization in the country and how it is changing its business strategy to adapt to the changing environment. It helps us understand the impressiveness of change in business strategy with changing times. ?It talks about computation and new business strategy which includes Social strategy, platform strategy and entire adjacencies. This helps us understand the change a new business strategy brings in any organization. on that point are also many practical man agerial implications of this material It talks about the social media strategy of Samsung battle with Apple and how their new design studio has the ability to bring software and hardware in concert in a new way.It gives us an idea about how important it is to get the demographics write on the social media and adapt or strategy accordingly. Secondly the article also helps us understand the importance of Samsung and platform in a banking organization further emphasizing on good quality software. Thirdly, it stresses on the importance of radical changes in operations to adapt to the changing markets, which can be the only survival of the fittest strategy. ARTICLE RETRIVED FROM http//www. forbes. com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/17/samsung-vs-apple-when-design-thinking-came-to-town/2/ /
Monday, May 20, 2019
Although they have very different plots with vastly different different characters, a harsh theme is cleverly intertwined by the authors of the following stories. The Interlopers, by Saki narrates a collectiblel between devil neighbors, torn apart by their forefathers grudge. Gimpel the Fool, by Isaac Bashevis Singer, is told by a man thought of as a fool, and forgives all those who mistreat and abuse him. The play Pygmalion, by Bernard Shaw shows the stage of a normal flower lady friend becoming an upper separate lady, and all the woes that come with it. The Interlopers, Gimpel the Fool, and Pygmalion all sh be the common theme of irony. level in such different contexts, irony is seen in these tales. The Interlopers has an ironic ending that shocks the reader. Saki starts the short story with Ulrich von Gradwitz seeking his nemisis, Georg Znaeym in a vast forest he calls his own. The reason for such hate would be many generations before dispute over land and game, which was st ill existed. When they both face each other, they are both prepared to kill one another, until a tree falls on them.After ever-living bickering under the tree, Gradwitz tells Znaeym, Neighbor, if you will help me to bury the old quarrel I- I will contain you to be my friend, (4) who then agrees. After this, The Interlopers abruptly ends with the two men ironically being eaten alive by a pack of wolves. In Gimpel the Fool, the main character, Gimpel, is treated as a fool all his life history in a village, and doesnt let it bother him, which further convinces the townspeople of his ignorance.This is ironic since Gimpel is actually the smartest of the bunch by thinking to himself, let it pass (1) even though he is labeled throughout the story as a fool. Till the end, the village makes a fool out of Gimpel, through forcing him to conjoin an outwardly untrue woman to acting to his face as if they dont retire that all children born from her have different fathers. Finally, later hi s wifes death, Gimpel leaves his sad little hometown. He then travels around the world, telling tales to many audiences, and enjoying pleasureful company.Indeed, Gimpel was not a fool. In Pygmalion, a phonetics professor, Mr. Higgins, takes the responsibility of training a lower class flower girl, to becoming an upper class woman, which has an ironic outcome due to the fact that her new lifestyle would seem be more comfortable, precisely in reality is not. Mr. Higgins is forced to teach Eliza the whole English language to her once again due to her own version containing words/sounds such as Ah-ah-ah-ow-ow-ow-oo (1749) Eliza already being beautiful, it only takes washing up to look like a lady.Resulting from becoming a proper lady, ironically Eliza has to sell herself in drift to find a husband, while when she was a flower girl she just had to sell flowers. Keeping up with the superficial world of appearances with everyone watching her every move proves to be too stressful, and El iza eventually breaks. She then leaves Mr. Higgins to marry someone he considered a fool, Freddy, who was smitten with her. In all these stories,different types of irony is expressed. The Interlopers has situational irony since the result of the armistice of the two men did not result in their freedom, but contrary, their death. In Gimpel the Fool, there is verbal irony since Gimpel is purposely labeled as a fool by the author though the truth is the opposite. Pygmalion has hammy irony since Eliza believes her life will be better as an upper class woman, though we know that will not be the case, as she herself also finds out the next day. Using irony not only adds twists to these stories, but also contributes to character development and increases suspense.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Justin Martyr was the Greek justifier of Christianity who lived in the 2nd c. A. D. He was famous for his two Apologies (the start-off plea dates back to about A. D. 155, rediscovered in 1364 ), and the converse with Trypho. Both Chadwick and Richardson called him unmatchable of the most prominent advocates of Christian faith due to the most genuine timber and voluminosity. The First Apology is addressed to the emperor Antoninus Pius and his confidants.The eloquent speech, which sometimes resembles of Platonic dialogues or defensive declaration in classic court, explains to the hostile prevailing authorities the openations of Christian theology from the point of a unfeigned believer. As Richardson noted, the work was not recklessly structured, so far as it was difficult for commentators to find a clear outline. There is a scheme of the Apology checkn in chapter 23, though it is hard to fall out through in detail. However, Richardson observed a distinctive rhetorical sche me consisting of seven themes Plea for a Fair Hearing (chs. 1 to 8), The Faith and Life of Christians (chs.9 to 20), Superiority of Christianity to Paganism (chs. 21 to 29), The line of work from Prophecy (chs. 30 to 53), Paganism an Imitation of Christianity (chs. 54 to 60), Christian Worship (chs. 61 to 67), and Conclusion (ch. 68) (1953, 236). Thus, the First Apology topically consists of the appeal to the Pagan Emperors who used to prosecute early Christians, the description of Christian theological position, the comparison of Pagan and Christian faiths, the overview of Biblical prophecies in regard to the Nazarene Christ, the account of Christian traditions (Eucharist, prays, and so forth ) and the summary of previous argumentations.Justin addressed the Emperor and his relatives as philosophers and lovers of culture in the name of people c atomic number 18less(predicate) of nationality being unjustly hated and r curseed for their faith. The apologist evidently held the heare rs for pityings being able to follow reason. more than that, Justin Martyr called for the high re frame upation of the Emperor as the pillar of justice who could not send a criminal to death in the lead conviction but, nevertheless, illogically did not pause to murder Christians. The author sweep aside the suspicions that he would flatter higher authorities, or try to seek their indulgent protection.Instead, Justin suggested that the listeners should voluntary give judgment fit in to strict and exact inquiry without prejudice or respect for superstitious men, or by irrational impulse and long-established evil rumor. No doubt that the author built his argument as if he was a solicitor speaking before the trial jury. In evidence of his firm and real position of a Christian, he exclaimed, For we are firmly convinced that we can suffer no evil unless we are proved to be evildoers or shown to be criminals. You can kill us, but cannot do us any real harm.Justins discourse is founde d on the concept of reason and truth. He juxtaposed the oppose rule of custom to the positive guidance of truth. The apologists conceptualization of truth linked to the i of justice even at the cost of purport, as well as to the most perfect contour of Reason, God. Justin warned his audience, if those who learn the truth do not do what is right, they have no defense before God. Chadwick tell that, according to the apologist, the gospel truth and the best elements in Plato and the Stoics are almost identical ways of apprehending the same truth. It seems to be genuine that Justin did not afraid to appellate to the authority of pagan philosophers, Plato and Socrates. The latter made the race of men invest with intelligence, able to choose the truth and do right, so that all men are without excuse before God, for they were made with the powers of reason and observation. He was executed for denouncing the power of evil demons who seduced humans and made them act wickedly. Justin found that there were parallels between the Stoics catastrophic comprehension of the world and the eschatological fire of Gods judgement. Still, the Christian spirit proclaimed by Justin is closer to Platos teaching. For example, in regard to death and martyrdom the apologist seemed to echo the Greek philosopher in the utterance, we are not troubled by being put to death, since we go out have to die somehow in any case. The Christian idea of eternal punishment for sinners and buyback for true and virtuous believers, when the souls of the unrighteous will be punished aft(prenominal) death, still remaining in conscious existence, and those of the virtuous, delivered from punishments, will enjoy happiness, also seems to correspond with Platos ideas.It looks as if Justin assigned both philosophers and the prophets of the darkened Testament to the one and the same position. He argued that Plato in his saying that, The blame belongs to him who chooses, and God is free from blame, so unded bid the prophet Moses. The concept of Divinity as bodiless and formless substance having created the Universe traveled from one philosophic mind to another. Justin seemed to view the role of the Old Testament prophets in paving the road to the descend of Jesus Christ to people to redeem them of sins and evil.Justin wrote, There were among the Jews certain men who were prophets of God, through whom the prophetic design announced in advance events that were to occur. One may assume that the apologist had knowledge of human psychological science and community behavior. He assumed that God testified in advance through the prophetic Spirit that things which are unbelievable and estimation impossible among men would happen, so that when this should occur it would not be disbelieved, but accredited with faith because it had been predicted. Citing the Bible, Justin analyzed the evidence from the Old Testament in regard to the events of the New Testament. He stated further that th ere were even more events to have been predicted by ancient prophets and there would be the second gear epiphany of Christ to Earth. Justin Martyr was a pioneer in underlining the Christian emphasis on spirit and dismissing human flesh as the driving cause for any acts and events. According to him, Christians were outstanding in their longing for the life which is eternal and pure. When the writer compared the pagan tradition of portraying gods as the objects of craft, he stressed that it was disgusting because of craftsmens licentious habits. He recalled ancient accounts of pagan gods living material life in contrast to Christian God who has no need of material offerings from men, considering that he is the provider of all. It is interesting to observe how Justin tried to draw the hierarchy of three Christian deities the Father, the Son and the Spirit. He made his best to explain that Christians honored Jesus as occupying the second place in the system, whereas the prophetic Spi rit was in the third rank.He dwelt in details on the teaching of Jesus where people were taught to love and trust each other, live in purity and clarity of thought and deed. That formed a sharp contrast to the pagan traditions of prostitution, greed, lust and wilderness. Justin put Christianity superior to Paganism because Christian God let believers not to consume by fire the things he has made for our nourishment, but to devote them to our use and those in need, in thankfulness to him sending up drab prayers and hymns for our creation. Christian God pursued the genuine truth and did not enjoy prejudices and human blindness in referencing to the truth. Involuntary, Justin sometimes made similar Christian and Pagan deities. However, he immediately tried to explain those analogies as imitations of the truth inspired by the devil, who with foresight and sagacity has thereby tried to inoculate men against the gospel by caricatures of the Incarnation or of the virgin birth or of baptis m and the eucharist. What is the use of Justins First Apology in the Roman and modern period?First, he addressed plain people who craved after the main idea for their lives. Second, he integrated the new teaching in the sequence of human thought to change the outliving mode of political and spiritual life. Third, he was utterly frank and open-hearted in describing the emerging faith. So far as his theological contribution is concerned, Justin was artful enough to piece together a arial mosaic providing a clear and surprisingly full account of his doctrines of God, Creation, Incarnation, Atonement, the Church, the sacraments of baptism and eucharist, and the Last Things. Richardson admitted in his turn that Justin Martyr stood aside from other apologists in his warm and human tone Most of the other Apologists lead their reader to the adit of the church while Justin opens it and tells a good deal about what goes on inside. BibliographyChadwick, Henry. Early Christian estimation a nd the Classical Tradition Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford Oxford University Press, 1984. Richardson, Cyril Charles. Early Christian Fathers. Philadelphia, PA Westminster Press, 1953.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Fashion whitethorn be described as the predominant style at any given time collectable to ones mode of expression or presentation. Ones personality may be defined by the clothes they return selected to wear. Celebrities and fashion ads seem to demonstrate that it is congenial to wear extremely revealing clothes and promote their outfits. sexually agitative people with strong personalities may choose to wear clothes with inappropriate innuendos or phrases create verbally on them. Modern fashion illustrates the social acceptance of provocative tog, which mulls upon our cultures bold behavior.see morewhy fashion is importantIt is thought that the clothes rescript chooses to wear defines ones intentions, character and gives others a basis on how to interpret personality. People have bold demeanors because of what they wear. Many argon too open with what they wear do it seem as if modern fashion is in the main about sex appeal. Modern culture is mainly concerned with how other s will interpret them and their appearance. Therefore society uses this to make oneself more kindly. If someone were to dress in revealing clothing, others will construe this as they atomic number 18 trying make themselves as sexually appealing as possible.However if someone were to dress in less revealing clothes they would not be in to the hype of sex appeal. This shows how modern culture reflects on the clothes being worn. These people who argon only worried about revealing themselves through outfits clearly have bold behaviours because they c be what society thinks of them. People tend to act more outgoing when they are dress in clothes that they are comfortable habiliment. No matter what font of clothing a person wears it give the gate be an enamour that alters others perception of the character of a person.Revealing clothing that is exposed by media can be on the hook(predicate) to peoples thoughts on modern fashion. Celebrities feel that it acceptable to wear whatever they please. Miley Cyrus is an excellent poser of this. She has recently had a tendency of wearing inappropriate clothing on stage and in her medicine videos. Her personality reflects how she dresses by showing how much she does not care about what people think of her. Miley is in truth revealing in her videos and her lyrics show her personality of being so careless of what other people think.Its our companionship we can do what we want to Its my mouth I can say what I want to(Cyrus). In her lyrics, she is inferring that she is above the law. This is the unstated conclusion throughout her song. She shows her careless attitude in her lyrics but also in her music videos. Miley is a role model to many but she rolls around on the floor wearing nothing but underwear and a tank top making it seem identical this is acceptable as she has a young, naive audience that does not know between right and wrong.She also does leap moves that are so inappropriate that young children should not wa tch this. Miley used to dress normally and she was an idol for many young girls growing up starring as Hannah Montana. Now she has changed personality by exemplify it through her fashion. Clothing with sexual or inappropriate phrases written on them has become more popular in modern culture because of the popular idols. People with forward personalities tend to buy clothes that reflect on the way that one would want to be judged. Selectsocieties with careless attitudes wear clothing that can be offensive to other people. Shirts with phrases such as Orgasm Donor and Drink Up Bitches are some of many examples of the offensiveness that people display through their clothing. People who wear clothing like this are often sexually provocative people who try to resemble the looks of their idols. Society feels the need come on to others that it is socially acceptable to look sexually appealing. In reality this type of clothing is obnoxious and reflects unwell on modern culture by giving it a bad label.The popularity of wearing offensive clothing has increased due to people trying to fit in. People who are unsure of what type of personality they have are often the ones who go with the latest and most popular fashion. Our cultures outgoing behaviour is based on the social acceptance that modern fashion portrays. It is believed that the clothes that a person may wear can reflect on their personality. Celebrities who wear excessively revealing clothing tend to beat an image that modern culture wants to follow.Miley Cyrus is one of the many celebrities who contribute to this. People who have audacious personalities are usually ones to try to keep up with modern fashion. These people have clothing with sexually provocative expressions written on them. Fashion can be defined as the prevailing style or etiquette. Society may dress to support feelings, actions or how others should interpret their character. Works Cited Cyrus, Miley. MILEY CYRUS WE CANT end LYRICS. Dire ctlyrics. N. p. , n. d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Friday, May 17, 2019
Module alter Transfer discharge Convection and acti nonherapy lab Date 22nd March 2012 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION3 AIMS & OBJECTIVES3 Objectives3 To investigate expel Convection and Radiation3 Theory3 EXPERIMENT3 Apparatus Used3 Procedure4 RESULTS, CALCULATIONS, OBSERVATIONS & CONCLUSIONS5 Observations During Tests5 plank 15 Table 25 Calculations6 designing office (Watts)6 reckon Heat Transfer Emissivity (? )6 Emisssivity of a black body6 Calculating Q rad6 Calculating Q rad6 Calculating Q conv7 Equation for excuse Convection7 Percentage values reckoning7 Absolute Pressure calculation7Graph of Pressure Against temporary worker Difference8 Conclusions8 Conclusion11 Typical Examples of Heat Transfer12 References13 List of Figures, Tables & Graphs14 Heat Transfer Laboratory Sheet I14 Heat Transfer Free Convection and Radiation Laboratory INTRODUCTION The purpose of this lab is to infrastand natural and essenced convection on a cylinder by measuring get along and ambient temp eratures and relating the data to convection pepperinessing get rid of equations. AIMS & OBJECTIVES Objectives To investigate Free Convection and Radiation 1. Determine the emissivity (? ) of an element look intoally. . Determine the Heat take away coefficients by free convection Theory indispensable Convection Heat channelize through and through circulation of fluid delinquent solely to gravity Forced Convection Heat commute through circulation of fluid due to forced fluid movement (fan, pump, etc. ) Radiation Heat transferred by surface p calorifacienton emission, typically only significant at TRoom temporary. EXPERIMENT Apparatus Used Figures 1 downst arguments shows the vacuum pump vas and measuring equipment used The apparatus consisted of a alter element which was suspend inside(a) a pull vessel.The air pressure in the vessel was change by the use of all a run valve or a 240v vacuum pump. The heat arousal to the e element was varied by up to 10W, the max wor king temp was non to exceed 200C and retained at that temperature or less end-to-end the experiment. The heat, power Input, the element, vessel temperatures and the air pressure inside the vessel was determined by the instruments deliverd for the experiment Procedure 1) Using the wall mounted barometer the atmospheric pressure was 1018 mB The gauge gives a reading of gauge pressure (diff mingled with the pressure inside the vessel and pressure outside the vessel)Absolute pressure (P) = pressure gauge reading + atmospheric pressure (mB) 2) Pressure reduced to 2mB and input voltage set to 8. 21 volts. 3) Observations and readings taken after 15 mins to allow system to stabilise and readings tabulated. 4) full point 3 repeated with Vacuum pressure reduced by 12, 60, 200, 500 and then finally with the bleed valve fully open tabulated as before. 5) Bleed valve was then fully opened to allow the pressure inside the vessel to meet atmospheric pressure and readings tabulated. RESULTS, CALCULATIONS, OBSERVATIONS & CONCLUSIONSObservations During Tests The initial observations were of the temperature, vacuum pressure and vessel pressures in semblance to the inside diameter of the vessel and element assembly. The Temp Diff verses Abs pressure graph below (Graph 1) shows the temp residue at nought free convection tending(p) by the equation for a straight line Y=MX+C Surface area of the vessel was given as 3070mm? , broker Length was given as 152mm and 6. 35mm respectively. The following Tables detail what is actually occurring to temperature and heat transfer inside the vessel.The table below shows the results from the tests carried out, employ pressure gauge readings -1015 (mB), -1002(mB), -957 (mB), -815(mB), -515(mB) and 0. Pressure Gauge Abs Press Voltage Current Power Element Element (vacuum) TEL TV (K) (Mb)1/4 W W % % WM-2K-1 144 21/4 = 1. 19 4. 7 1. 14 81 19 2. 57 WM-2K-1 133 161/4 = 2 4. 31 1. 66 72 28 4. 06 WM-2K-1 123 611/4 = 2. 79 3. 81 2 . 13 64 36 5. 64 WM-2K-1 111 2031/4 = 3. 77 3. 25 2. 71 55 45 7. 95 WM-2K-1 97 5031/4 = 4. 73 2. 68 3. 24 45 55 10. 8 WM-2K-1 87 10181/4 = 3. 22 2. 27 3. 65 38 62 13. 66 WM-2K-1 Table 2 Calculations Heat spillagees in the connecting leads Q = (0. 94 x Volts x Amperes) in watts Calculating Power (Watts) Power = Volts x Amperes (Watts) Power= 8. 21volts x 0. 779 amps = 6. 39 (W) x Heat loses Power = 6. 39 (W) x 0. 94 = 6. 01 Watts Heat Transfer = 0. 94 x 8. 21 x 0. 779 = 6. 01 watts Calculating Heat Transfer Emissivity (? ) Emisssivity of a black body ( copper ) = 1 If ? = 1 Use ? = 0. 7 to calculate Q rad ? = Q rad Joules or Watts A x ? x (T4 EL T4 v) ? = 6. 01(W) = 1. 2 ratio (307010-6 ) x (5. 6710-6 ) x (4364 292 4) Calculating Q rad for Pressure -1015 Mb Q rad = ? x A x ? x (T4 EL T4 v) Q rad = 0. 97 x (307010-6 ) x (5. 6710-6 ) x (4364 292 4) Q rad = 4. 87 Watts Calculating Q rad for Pressure -1002 Mb Q rad = ? x A x ? x (T4 EL T4 v) Q rad = 0. 97 x (307010-6 ) x (5. 6710 -6 ) x (4264 293 4)Q rad = 4. 31 Watts Calculating Q conv for Free Convection at Heat input 4. 87(W) Q conv = Heat loss x Volts x Amperes Q rad Q conv = 0. 94 x 8. 21 x0. 779 4. 87 Q conv = 1. 14 Watts Equation for Free Convection Q conv = h ( Convected heat transfer ) x A x (T4 EL T4 v) Transpose for h (Convected Heat Transfer) h = Qconv h = 1. 14 = 2. 58Wm-2K-1 A x (T4 EL T4 v) (307010-6 ) x (4364 292) Percentage values calculation Qrad + Qconv = Qtotal 4. 87 + 1. 14 = 6. 01 Watts Qrad% = 4. 87/ 6. 0 x 100% = 81% QRad this is because it was not a perfect vacuum Qconv % =1. 14/ 6. 01 x 100% = 19% QConv this is because it was not a perfect vacuum Absolute Pressure calculation Abs Press = Gauge pressure Atmos Pressure =1015Mb 1018Mb = 31/4 Graph of Pressure Against Temp Difference pic Graph 1 Conclusions Temp difference for free convection crosses Y axis is at 160(K) for zero gas pressure, the power by the grass element has transferred completely to the vessel by radiotherap y at his point. inhering convection is more(prenominal) prevalent at lower temperatures whereas radiation is more prevalent at high temperaturesPossible Sources of error conductivity from the het cylinder to its housing tube possible changes in ambient temperature Variations in surface temperature Heat Transfer by Convection and uses Heat typically does not flow through liquids and gases by means of conduction. Liquids and gases are fluids their particles are not fixed in place they move about the the great unwashed of the sample of press. The model used for explaining heat transfer through the bulk of liquids and gases involves convection. Convection is the process of heat transfer from one(a) fix to the next by the movement of fluids.The moving fluid carries vigour with it. The fluid flows from a high temperature location to a low temperature location. pic (Images courtesy Peter Lewis and Chris westerly of Standfords SLAC. ) To understand convection in fluids, think the heat transfer through the wet that is existence het in a pot on a outfit. The source of the heat is the stove burner. The coat pot that holds the water is heated by the stove burner. As the metal becomes hot, it begins to conduct heat to the water. The water at the boundary with the metal pan becomes hot. Fluids hit the roof when heated and become less dense.So as the water at the bottom of the pot becomes hot, its density decreases. The differences in water density between the bottom of the pot, and the aggrandisement of the pot results in the gradual formation of circulation currents. resilient water begins to rise to the top of the pot displacing the dustyer water that was originally there. And the colder water that was present at the top of the pot moves towards the bottom of the pot where it is heated and begins to rise. These circulation currents slowly develop over time, providing the pathway for heated water to transfer energy from the bottom of the pot to the s urface.Convection excessively explains how an electric slug dictated on the base of a cold means warms up the air in the room. Air present near the coils of the heater warm up. As the air warms up, it expands, becomes less dense and begins to rise. As the hot air rises, it pushes some of the cold air near the top of the room out of the way. The cold air moves towards the bottom of the room to supplant the hot air that has risen. As the colder air approaches the heater at the bottom of the room, it becomes warmed by the heater and begins to rise. Once more, convection currents are slowly formed.Air travels along these pathways, carrying energy with it from the heater throughout the room. Convection is the main method of heat transfer in fluids much(prenominal) as water and air. It is often said that heat rises in these situations. The more appropriate explanation is to say that heated fluid rises. For instance, as the heated air rises from the heater on a floor, it carries mor e energetic particles with it. As the more energetic particles of the heated air mix with the tank air near the ceiling, the average kinetic energy of the air near the top of the room subjoins.This increase in the average kinetic energy corresponds to an increase in temperature. The net result of the rising hot fluid is the transfer of heat from one location to another location. The convection method of heat transfer perpetually involves the transfer of heat by the movement of matter. The two examples of convection discussed here heating water in a pot and heating air in a room are examples of natural convection. The driving force of the circulation of fluid is natural differences in density between two locations as the result of fluid being heated at some source. Some sources introduce the concept of buoyant forces to explain why the heated fluids rise. We will not pursue such explanations here. ) Natural convection is common in nature. The earths oceans and atmosphere are he ated by natural convection. In contrast to natural convection, forced convection involves fluid being forced from one location to another by fans, pumps and other devices. Many home heating systems involve force air heating. Air is heated at a furnace and lactaten by fans through ductwork and released into rooms at freeing locations. This is an example of forced convection.The movement of the fluid from the hot location (near the furnace) to the cool location (the rooms throughout the house) is driven or forced by a fan. Some ovens are forced convection ovens they have fans that blow heated air from a heat source into the oven. Some dismissplaces enhance the heating capacity of the fire by blowing heated air from the fireplace unit into the adjacent room. This is another example of forced convection. Heat Transfer by Radiation A final method of heat transfer involves radiation. Radiation is the transfer of heat by means of electromagnetic waves.To radiate means to send out or s tring out from a central location. Whether it is light, sound, waves, rays, flower petals, wheel spokes or pain, if something radiates then it protrudes or spreads outward from an origin. The transfer of heat by radiation involves the carrying of energy from an origin to the space surrounding it. The energy is carried by electromagnetic waves and does not involve the movement or the interaction of matter. Thermal radiation can occur through matter or through a region of space that is void of matter (i. e. , a vacuum).In fact, the heat standard on Earth from the sun is the result of electromagnetic waves traveling through the void of space between the Earth and the sun. All objects radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The rate at which this energy is released is proportional to the Kelvin temperature (T) raised to the fourth power. Radiation rate = kT4 (Images courtesy Peter Lewis and Chris West of Standfords SLAC. ) The hotter the object, the more it radiates. The s un obviously radiates off more energy than a hot mug of coffee. The temperature also affects the wavelength and frequency of the radiated waves.Objects at typical room temperatures radiate energy as infrared waves. Being imperceptible to the human eye, we do not see this form of radiation. An infrared camera is capable of detecting such radiation. Perhaps you have seen thermal photographs or videos of the radiation surrounding a person or creature or a hot mug of coffee or the Earth. The energy radiated from an object is usually a collection or range of wavelengths. This is usually referred to as an emission spectrum. As the temperature of an object increases, the wavelengths at heart the spectra of the emitted radiation also decrease.Hotter objects tend to emit shorter wavelength, higher frequency radiation. The coils of an electric toaster are considerably hotter than room temperature and emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Fortunately, this provides a conve nient warning to its users that the coils are hot. The wolfram filament of an incandescent light bulb emits electromagnetic radiation in the visible (and beyond) range. This radiation not only allows us to see, it also warms the glass bulb that contains the filament. Put your hand near the bulb (without touch it) and you will feel the radiation from the bulb as well.Thermal radiation is a form of heat transfer because the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the source carries energy away from the source to surrounding (or distant) objects. This energy is absorbed by those objects, causing the average kinetic energy of their particles to increase and causing the temperatures to rise. In this sense, energy is transferred from one location to another by means of electromagnetic radiation. The image at the right was taken by a thermal imaging camera. The camera detects the radiation emitted by objects and represents it by means of a color photograph.The hotter modify represent are as of objects that are emitting thermal radiation at a more intense rate. Conclusion The experiment described above provides a convenient method whereby You may investigate the different processes that contribute to cooling system system in a standard laboratory experiment. In particular, the measurements obtained to enable you to clarify the relative contributions from convection and radiation. Examples of Free Natural Convection Heat transfer by natural convection occurs when a fluid is in contact with a surface hotter or colder than itself. As the fluid is heated or cooled it changes its density.This difference in density causes movement in the fluid that has been heated or cooled and causes the heat transfer to continue. There are many examples of natural convection in the food industry. Convection is significant when hot surfaces, such as retorts which may be vertical or naiant cylinders, are exposed with or without insulation to colder ambient air. It occurs when food is placed inside a hair-raiser or freezer store in which circulation is not assisted by fans. Convection is important when material is placed in ovens without fans and afterwards when the cooked material is removed to cool in air.Convective heat transfer is a instrument of heat transfer occurring because of bulk motion (observable movement) of fluids. Heat is the entity of interest being advected (carried), and diffused (dispersed). This can be contrasted with radiative heat transfer, the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves. Heat is transferred by convection in numerous examples of naturally occurring fluid flow, such as wind, oceanic currents, and movements within the Earths mantle. Convection is also used in engineering practices to provide desired temperature changes, as in heating of homes, industrial processes, cooling of equipment, etc.The rate of convective heat transfer may be improved by the use of a heat sink, often in conjunction with a fan. For instance, a typical computer CPU will have a purpose-made fan to hold back its operating temperature is kept within tolerable limits. Typical Examples of Heat Transfer CONDUCTION Heat conduction is an essential and commonplace part of our daily lives, in industry, and in nature. Whenever heat needs to be transferred through an opaque substance, the transfer must be by conduction.In a hot-water heating system, for example, heat from burning displace is transferred by conduction through the press out or steel of the boiler to heat the water. Heat from a burner on a stove is conducted through the bottom of utensils to cook food. In nature, the surface of the earth is heated by the sun, and some of this heat is conducted to deeper layers of the soil during the day and back to the surface at night-the varying ability of different kinds of soil and water to absorb and conduct heat received from the sun has a reasoned effect on local and worldwide weather and climate. Examples Touching a stove and being burned -Ice cooling down your hand -Boiling water by thrusting a red-hot piece of iron into it CONVECTION Free, or natural, convection occurs when bulk fluid motion (steams and currents) are caused by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature in the fluid. Forced convection is a term used when the streams and currents in the fluid are induced by external meanssuch as fans, stirrers, and pumpscreating an artificially induced convection current. Examples -Hot air rising, cooling, and falling (convection currents An old-fashioned radiator (creates a convection cell in a room by emitting warm air at the top and lottery in cool air at the bottom). RADIATION Heat from the sun warming your face- Heat from a lightbulb Heat from a fire Heat from anything else which is warmer than its surroundings. Gas chambers in greens engines Circulation Boiler Furnaces Industrial example Radiation Heat transfer generally occurs in Higher temperatur e applications within processes with furnace temperatures above about 2200F (1200C). They usually have furnaces which use combustors such as in the metals, minerals, and flub incineration industries.In general, the dominant heat transfer mechanism in those industries is thermal radiation. This is in contrast to lower temperature applications where both(prenominal) radiation and forced convection are often important. References 1 Understanding Physics, sections 11. 5 11. 7, John Wiley & Sons 1998. 2 C. T. OSullivan, Correction for cooling techniques in heat experiments. Physics Education, 25, 176 179 (1990). 3 The data acquisition system (data logger) used was the eProLab system developed under the Leonardo da Vinci Programme ComLab2 (project NO SI 143008) website www. e-prolab. com/comlab/. 4 In some situations differences between Ts and Ta may be important see, for example, C. T. OSullivan, Newtons law of cooling a critical assessment, Amer. J. Phys. , 58 (10), 956 960 (1990) . SHEFFIELD HALLAM UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ACES (2009), serve Engineering Lab Sheet. Multi Hole Extrusion Suranaree University of Technology, Last accessed 7th April 2009 at http//www. sut. ac. th/Engineering/metal/pdf/metform/04_extrusion. pdf ROYMECH Mechanical engineering and engineering materials. Last accessed 1st April 2009 at http//www. roymech. co. uk/Useful_Tables/Manufacturing/Extruding. tml Russ College of Engineering and Technology at Ohio University. http//www. ent. ohiou. edu/raub/manufacturing/extrusion. htmTypes%20of%20 extrusion Course notes and hand outs. Sheffield Hallam University List of Figures, Tables & Graphs Figure 1Vacuum Pump and Vessel set up Table 1Pressure gauge readings -1015 (mB), -1002(mB), -957 (mB), -815(mB), -515(mB) and 0 Table 2Temp Differences of 144(K), 133(K), 123(K), 111(K), 97(K) and 87(K) Graph 1Temp Difference Vs Absolute Pressure Appendixes Heat Transfer Laboratory SheetI pic Figure 1 Table 1 Temp difference free convection (160K)