Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Birthday Party

â€Å"Birthday Party† Love can fade away or be lost by even the strongest of couples in the view of society. The â€Å"Birthday Party,† by Katharine Brush relates the relationship of two â€Å"unmistakably married† couple, out for a small celebration, which goes wrong as an example of love that can not always be sustained by age. As couples get older it is harder to sustain love in front of society, and Brush shows the idea by incorporating symbolism, tone, and point of view to the story.Brush uses the tone to build up the audience’s emotions toward the married couple and also identify why the situation occurred. In the begging she mentions that they looked â€Å"unmistakably married† which emphasizes the bond of love that appears on the outside. The physical aspect of their relationship is good to show because it lets society know that there is a strong bond, making it easier for the audience to react in the shocked way that they did when the incid ent occurred. The contradicting choice of words of Brush when describing the incident also gives the confusion that something is not right.By using fadingly pretty, beamed with shy pride, unmistakably married, hotly embarrassed and not pleased you can see a foreshadowing of what may happen according to the mixed signals. In a way, it has the reader thinking back and fort whether this is love after a long period of time. What seems to be an ordinary day out, turns into a small celebration in which we can compare the minor events as symbolism to their love. The cake that was brought out showed the wife’s affection for her husband, therefore simply signified her love to him.When the cake was rejected by the husband, it meant that the husband had little interest in her love. This reveals that the strong physical relationship that the audience saw in the beginning is false now that they see the husband hotly mad. It shows that their love is slowly decaying in front of society. The fact that they are out in public illustrates the judgment of all to what love truly is, difficult to manage as time goes on. People will always be judgmental of couples and their relationship which is why Brush describes the wife as wearing a â€Å"big hat. The big hat that she wears, after she has been humiliated by her husband, represents what most girls do during emotional tolls. They use them to cover up their emotions so that they are not pitted on by others. This attempt to hide does not work very well because Brush describes the scene where the narrator shows a sign of pity for the lonely sobbing woman. In this short story love has shifted the couple’s relationship in a serious way which gives the audience an opinion of how they should react according to their point of view.There are many biased forms to interpret who is to blame for a fallen relationship. The way that Brush describes the story and from what point of view she portrayed the situation it seems as thoug h there is a feminist background on who is to blame for this relationship. Describing the woman more dramatically, â€Å"fadingly pretty† and â€Å"in a big hat,† than the man, it implies that she finds the woman to be more presentable to society; therefore carrying more about how people see her. There is evidence of acting dramatically.When she cried inside the restaurant, it can most likely show that from the point of view of the audience she was the helpless one with a broken heart and the man was very rude. Throughout life the bond of love is seen in society in different ways than they are seen in the inside. Society can change the view of love as Brush shows that love is can’t be predicted and that hopeless love is possible. If there is no hope for love as an older couple that it shows us what couples of today’s generation will go through. The Birthday Party Have you ever been so afraid that you have felt that even your hair trembled? When a delightful day starts and you are full of life but suddenly you think you are not going to tell your friends and family how much you love them, and how much you miss them before you die. At 7 o'clock in the evening I went to the cinema with some friends to celebrate my birthday. I knew that something was going wrong. I knew that, that night wasn't an ordinary night. I knew I had to go home on foot and not by car. Everything and everyone was different. My friends arrived and we decided to watch a horror movie, â€Å"Gothika†. We entered the screen but something strange happened. There weren't any other people! In the middle of the movie somebody was calling me. I did not know the number, so I did not answered but whoever it was, he kept calling. I answered. A creepy voice whispered, â€Å"It will rain tonight.† I told my friends about it, and they laughed. â€Å"Leoni don't be crazy! It's just a joke! This morning the sun was shining it will not rain! â€Å"Come on do not be afraid. Calm down Leoni!† Peter soothed. â€Å"The movie we have chosen is a bit scary and she is afraid. Calm down Leoni!† Epaminondas whispered. â€Å"She is just not in a good mood.† Maria said. â€Å"I am telling you there was something scary with those words, something strange.† I whispered. At about 11:25 everybody left and I started walking back home. There was a full moon. A terrifying wind made the trees rustle. The wind whistled through the leaves like a wining sound. I was so frightened. I felt like someone was coming after me. I saw a narrow road and I decided to go home from there. Suddenly, it started raining. I panicked. A howling voice whispered, â€Å"I told you, it will rain.† Blood boomed in my ears. I wanted to run away or close my eyes and be at home but it could not happen. While I was thinking about any ideas dealing with my scariness I saw an old lady. She was a short, fat lady and with grey hair. Was she behind this bad joke? She seemed like an ordinary woman with droopy eyes and short hair. I started walking towards her when a black figure appeared. Who was he? Was he someone she knew? Was he the one that phoned me? What was this night about? The man had long, black hair and almond eyes. He was carrying something. A knife! I wanted to warn her but I couldn't move. I was stuck and I couldn't move my legs. I called Maria she was sleeping. Jane was sleeping too. What shall I do? Who shall I phone to come and help me? What if it was all my imagination? I phoned Chris, I didn't say much. I just told him to come to the narrow road, near the cinema. The woman was still there. She seemed to be looking for something. The man was still behind her. I told Chris to pull me just to try and move my legs. I could walk! I could run! But I couldn't run for long until I stopped in front of the old lady. While trembling I asked, â€Å"What are you looking for?† â€Å"My umbrella, child, didn't anyone tell you it would rain tonight? You are all wet. Come, take my jacket!† she said. I looked behind me and I saw the man walking away. The figure became one with the dark night. When I turned around I saw him. My heart was beating so fast and I could hardly breathe. It missed a beat! He opened his mouth to say something and I noticed that he was missing a tooth. He was very scary. He whispered, â€Å"Didn't I tell you it would rain? You thought I was joking. You did not believe me! I will make you believe me!† â€Å"Chris! Chris! Where are you?† I shouted. I opened my eyes. Chris and my friends were next to me. They were all smiling but you knew they were upset. â€Å"†Was the film so boring that you slept while we were watching it?† Chris asked. â€Å"It was a nightmare! Thank God!† I called. â€Å"You have a missed call from an unknown number.† Epaminondas said. â€Å"Oh no!† I shouted. â€Å"What's wrong?† Maria asked. â€Å"I saw a nightmare. Don't tell me to explain it because I cannot. Please can somebody do me a favour?† I asked. â€Å"Whatever you want! We will always be there for you!† Joanna shouted. â€Å"Can you phone this number back?† I asked. â€Å"Sure.† Joanna said. She phoned. She waited. She phoned another time. Nobody answered. She phoned from her mobile. Again. No answer. â€Å"Leoni are you sure this is the right number?† She asked. â€Å"Yes. This was the number that phoned me.† I whispered. â€Å"But†¦Ã¢â‚¬ She mumbled. â€Å"But what? What is wrong? Tell me!† I cried. â€Å"This number is not in use.† She whispered. â€Å"It is! Look it is calling me again.†Ã¢â‚¬  I complained. â€Å"Answer it.† Maria suggested. â€Å"I t will rain tonight!† A creepy voice whispered. â€Å"Oh no! This cannot be happening! Can you take me home? Please?† I asked desperately. â€Å"Hello? Can you hear me? Maria? Joanna? Chris? Epaminondas?† I shouted. But nobody could hear me. It seemed that I was trapped somewhere and nobody could hear me or even see me. Yes†¦I was dreaming!!!!!!!! I opened my eyes and suddenly the lights went on, a chorus of happy voices yelled happily happy birthday to me!

Anything

What are the key event, trends and turning points which you think will be occurring over the next 5 years? Ampang Jaya Municipal council has a very bright vision which Is to make the Ampang Jaya Municipality prosperous and harmonious by 2015. The vision was created suitable as the function of MPAJ itself which is to serve the community within the Ampang Jaya area.In order to realize and achieve the vision, Ampang jaya Municipal Council were very struggling to adapt with and move along with the advancement of technology to ensure a very strategic town planning an be well use. Besides that, Ampang Jaya Municipal council also develops Its creativity and innovative sense so that it will contribute towards the achievement of world class organization that may facilitate the customers demand especially the residents in the Ampang Jaya area.Proudly, Ampang Jaya Munucipal Council shows lot of their effort by combining their strength as a prestigious organization with the vision stated as a dr ive to make sure Ampang Jaya Municipal Council will move forwards and Improve its accountability integrity and transparency towards a strategic town planning in the next five years ahead. SWOT ANALYSIS OF MPAJ Swot analysis Is an analytical method which is used to Identify and categorise significant internal strength and weaknesses and external sucha s opportunities and threats factors faced either in a particular arena, such as an organisation.It provides Information that Is helpful In matching the firms' resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates and is therefore an important contribution to the strategic planning process. It Is used as a dynamic part of the management and business development process. Strength of MPAJ Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Is an organization that provides services to the esident along Ampnag Jaya area. The organization plays crucial roles to ensure that all the resident living well with all the Important Infrastructure and transportation available.Firstly, the strength of Ampang Jay Municipal Council is it focuses on the environment. It means that, the organization was fully taken responsible to ensure that the environments within Ampang Jaya area are well organized and preserved. MPAJ had launch campaign to create awareness with the Involvement of public in gotong-royong every month and the Planning unit department adopt systemauc approach in designing a landscape in Ampang Jaya.No one shall diminish the environment of the area, As example, Ampang Jaya Municipal Council are held responsible to ensure there is company that will loaded up the garbage throw by the residents so that the area will be clean. This Is parallel with the maln function of MpaJ which is to serve the publics and manage the Ampang Jaya territories. Next is, Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Provide variety of facilities and services and act as an 1 OF3 enTorcement Doay wltnln tne area.I ne scope ana responsl I t D II les 0T tne pr ovide a good surroundings and environment to the the Ampang Jaya residents. Through all the budgets given by the government, Ampang Jaya Municipal Council shall play it roles as good as they should be. MPAJ enhance their role by providing and build various infrastructures, services and e-services. As example, MPAJ are held the accountability to facilitate the area with a well organize hospital facilities, transportations, food court, mosque and public bath and many more.This is regards as MPAJ strength because of their role to facilitate the area are goes well acting up as the enforcement body that will be respected by many publics. As example, MPAJ may rite a compound letter to the premises of food courts if the premises were not following the exact procedures in opening the premises such as cleanliness. Weaknesses of MPAJ Along with much strength that exists within the Ampang Jaya Municipal Council, the organization also has it weaknesses. First, the weaknesses of the MPAJ is , th e staff of the organization were lack of quality measurement.It happens and can be seen when the quality of services offered is not in line with the vision of MPAJ. The vision of MPAJ is to make the area harmonious and integrated by 2015 but still, there are oopholes in the organization where some staff was not giving all the cooperation to help achieving the vision stated. This can be prove by an articles written in a newspaper where the residents of Taman Teratai ask MPAJ to take urgent action against badly cracked and collapsed drain walls that lead to soil erosion.Regards to these matters, MPAH should take an immediate action to supervise, monitor and ensure that all the residents in the area are being take care of. This had shows the commitment stated by the organization are not well spreading within the organization. Besides, many issues had been arising regarding MPAJ. This issues arise had tarnished the MPAJ's image and reputation especially when it indicates that the staff are lacking in the integrity values. Bureaucratic in nature lead to discipline problem, unaccountability and corruption issues within the organizations.As example, the most hottest issues pertaining MPAJ of the year is the cases of former MPAJ enforcement director Capt (R) Abdul Kudus Ahmad was sentenced to 11 years and 10 months Jail and RM370,OOO fine for accepting bribes totaling RM59,OOO. This is the strongest weakness of MPAJ that had tarnished its reputation. Opportunities of MPAJ As a public organization, Ampang Jaya Municipal Council able to take and grabs many opportunities that came ahead of the organization. This opportunities came, thanks to the globalization that created many chance for the MPAJ to improves its lack and maintain it's prosperous.First, the opportunities that came beneath MPAJ organization is the growth of the technologies where the advancement of technologies lead to better productivity and efficiency of the MPAJ function. As example through the advancem ent of technology many technological devices has been adopted to provide an excellent services to the Ampang Jaya residents. As example, is the usage of modern machine conducted by expertise to beautify the town can be very useful tools for MPAJ.I nreats to M Every organization has threats that make the organization to be alert more with the surroundings. The threats that have been surrounds by the Ampang Jaya Municipal Council is the mentalities of the citizen around the Ampang Jaya area itself. The demands of the citizens are sometimes beyond the limit that can be reach and realize by the Ampang Jaya Municipal Council. The demands from the citizens are above the MPAJ expectations. As example, are the high citizens' expectations that emand everything to be settled within MPAJ authorities.It is an alarm that chain the public organization where the organization cannot fully fulfilled the demand. Besides that is the migration of the citizens into the Ampang Jaya area. This migration c reat more surplus and induce to the overpopulation problems thata later on creating more social issues and conflicts. It in hard to monitor the overcrowded and the possibilities to prevent and maintains its peace is more complicated. The illegal activities may take place and it will be difficult to combat the crime as overcrowded made it hard to settle things up.Tthe Ampang Jaya area is not abig area and nowadays it still can afford its population but in the future, the effects of globalization may trigger more the mirgation and create overpopulations. This later on will require the Ampang Jaya Municipal Council to provide more facilities, transportation and others accomodation but yet, the problem is it may surpass the limits of Ampang Jaya Municipal Council to cope with all the demands. MPAJ's Stakeholder Basically, stakeholders are an individual, group, organization that directly or indirectly get involve with the MPAJ activities.The Amppang Jaya Municipal council's takeholders i s consist of state government such as Office of the State Secretary and Office of State Treasury, federal government such as Housing and Local Government, Department of Public Service, MPAJ themselves which includes members of the council. Besides that is the customer that act as the important stakeholders which is residents, visitors, tourists, government agencies and private, residential owner or business premises. The non organizational organization also acts as the stakeholders of the Ampang Jaya Municipal council together with the Business Community and Concession Company.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Erikson’s Fifth Stage of Psychosocial Development Essay

As a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst, Erik Erikson crafted eight stages of human psychosocial development. The stage that has impacted my life the most is Identity versus Role Confusion, the fifth stage. This stage deals with adolescents twelve to eighteen years old. Erikson’s fifth stage prompts teens, like me, to ask ourselves who we want to be, what we want out of life, and what values and beliefs we live by. Erikson’s Fifth Stage of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson was a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory of human psychosocial development (New World Encyclopedia, 2013). Erikson’s theory has eight stages. They span from birth to death. According to Gorrindo, Fishel, and Beresin (2012, pg. 282-283), â€Å"Erikson’s stages . . . describe challenges for the individual based on cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal/social issues.† Erikson’s model of psychosocial development consists of those eight stages, but each stage is characterized by a psychological â€Å"crisis† (New World Encyclopedia, 2013). The Encyclopedia has stated that â€Å"when the outcome of the crisis is favorable, the person achieves a certain virtue or strength; when it is unsuccessful, the person develops a maladaptive character and continues to struggle with this conflict later in life.† The theoretical stage that most impacted my development is Erikson’s fifth stage, Identity versus Role Confusion, which takes place in the adolescent years of twelve to eighteen. As described in Myers’ Psychology textbook (2010, pg. 201), the fifth stage addresses teenagers working at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Erikson’s fifth stage makes adolescents wonder, â€Å"Who am I as an individual? What do I want to do with my life? What values should I live by? What do I believe in?† Erikson called this quest the adolescent’s search  for identity. Identity versus Role Confusion is a very important stage because it helps you figure out who you are and what you will do in life. In this stage you form an identity or image of yourself, or you become confused about your role in society. Identity refers to the organization of the individual’s drives, abilities, beliefs, and history into a consistent image of self (Kasinath, 2013, pg. 1). According to the New World Encyclopedia (2013), Erikson’s search for his own personal identity led him to postulate the importance of personal identity in psychological growth. Erikson also believed that we continue to develop our personality, or identity, through adolescence and even throughout adulthood. Kasinath (2013, pg. 2) has suggested that â€Å"the components of identity that Erikson stressed are acceptance of one’s appearance, knowledge about where one is going, and recognition from others. Kasinath also states that â€Å"role confusion is most frequently caused by failure to formulate clear ideas about gender roles and by indecision about occupational choice.† So far, I have only been confused by what occupation I want to have. I have formed most parts of my identity, but because I am only fifteen years old, I am still continuing to create my sense of self. In this stage, childhood comes to an end. Cognitively, teenagers are able for the first time to consider abstract, existential questions (Gorrindo, Fishel, and Beresin, 2012, pg. 289). Gorrindo and his co-writers also stated that teenagers are thinking about the meaning of life, who their parents and family are, and who they wish to be when they leave home. Also stated by Gorrindo is, â€Å"preparation for separating from family and achieving independence is an important theme.† In relation to my life, these themes are reoccurring. I think about these statements and quotations every day. Erikson’s fifth stage, Identity versus Role Confusion, involves thinking about who you are as an individual and what you want to do with your life. I think about these aspects all the time. I wonder who I am, why I am here, and what I want to do. But because I am inquiring about this, it helps me dig deep and discover who I am. From the age of twelve to now (fifteen) I have changed my mind multiple times about my occupation choice. I wanted to be a lawyer, an FBI agent, and then a musician, and now finally a doctor. When I finally decided I wanted to be a doctor, it was because I realized who I was and that I wanted to help people. As suggested by Douvan (1997, pg. 16), â€Å" . . . the seach for meaning  and for fit, the hard work of building an identity that both satisfies an inner need for meaning and continuity and can find acceptance in one’s society.† Douvan also states that â€Å"it is hard for our current students to imagine that there was a time when identity struggle was not inscribed in adolescence. The search for an identity is ingrained in students’ minds since the first day a person asked you what you are like and what you want to be when you grow up. The fifth stage also involves questioning what values you should live by and what you believe in. I have formed so many of my values and beliefs in this stage of psychosocial development. My values shape who I am and make me want to be a doctor. My values also help me in friendships, relationships, and life situations. My beliefs help me form opinions and have a say in topics. Identity and values/beliefs go hand-in-hand. My identity leads to my beliefs and values, but my beliefs and values help shape my identity. In the adolescence, the students develop capabilities for abstract thinking and understanding the perspectives of others (Kasinath, 2013, pg. 1). As an adolescent, I have grown to be able to think critically and abstractly. I have also learned to listen to others and see things from their point of view. Erik Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development, Identity versus Role Confusion, has most impacted my development. In this stage, the adolescents form a sense of self by testing roles and integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused about who they are. Erikson’s fifth stage makes adolescents wonder who we want to be, what we want out of life, and what values and beliefs we live by. References Douvan, E. (1997). Erik Erikson: Critical times, critical theory. Child psychiatry and human development, 28(1), 15-21. doi:10.1023/A:1025188901554 Gorrindo, T., Fishel, A., & Beresin, E. V. (2012). Understanding Technology Use Throughout Development: What Erik Erikson Would Say About Toddler Tweets and Facebook Friends. FOCUS: The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, 10(3), 282. Kasinath. H. M. (2013). Adolescence: Search For An Identity. I-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 7(1), 1-6. Retrieved July 13, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com.portal.lib.fit.edu/docview/1476284556?pq-origsite=

Monday, July 29, 2019

History The American Civil War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

History The American Civil War - Essay Example The Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation on 15th Nov, 1777. At that point of time Congress was the sole federal governmental institution in the United States of America and final draft of the Articles empowered the Congress with various political capacities, including negotiation of diplomatic treaties, capacity of declaring war and power to solve various issues related to the Western Territories. However, the Articles of Confederation was not full proof and it just provided the Congress with highest level of legislative powers, but without any authority to execute them. The Federalists, or a group of reformers, who emerged from the American Revolutionary War, in this context, opined that the Articles were not perfect to form a powerful central state and lacked some of the most important provisions for complete governance. The biggest criticism against the Articles of Confederation was that, it did not give taxing authority to the government, rather in times of national emergency the government had to request for funds from the States. The Articles also failed to authorize government with the powers of uniform tariff imposition, granting lands and undertake the burden of unpaid debts. Another major criticism against these articles was that they did not have the balancing capacity between large and small states, when it came to legislative decision making process. Criticism of the Federalists soon proved to be true. The Treaty of Paris was signed in the year 1783 and United States gained its independence finally but the governmental structure of the newly formed nation was completely unsettled. Soon, in the aftermath period of signing the Treaty of Paris, the Revolution took place and it was followed by the collapse of continental dollar all over U.S, leading to the great economic depression. At the same time, due to its unsettled governmental structure, feasibility of the American Government was

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Does Canada's Official Policy of Multiculturalism Strengthen or Weaken Research Paper

Does Canada's Official Policy of Multiculturalism Strengthen or Weaken the Country's National Identity - Research Paper Example This application is usually done at the organizational level, for example, nations, states, cities, towns, neighborhoods, businesses, schools, and hospitals among others. Another author, Bumsted (p 12), defines multiculturalism as a school of thought embodied in political philosophy that addresses the best way to respond to religious and cultural diversity. Examples of Multiculturalism Good examples of multicultural societies include Canada, Argentina, Australia, Netherlands, and Continental Europe among others (Garcea, p. 51). In these countries, multiculturalism is treated seriously, with policies being put in place to ensure that there is the development of lasting and useful relationships within cultural, religious and ethnic groups (Kelley and Trebilcock, p. 49). New comers and other groups that may be seen to be marginalized such as immigrants are treated with respect and reached out to so as to ensure that they feel part of these countries or regions (Jedwab, p 33). These coun tries recognize the existence of multiple cultures, ethnicities, and religious groups, which are all treated equally (Banting and Soroka, p 156). Definition of National Identity National identity is defined as the identity of a person that gives him/her a sense of belonging to a particular nation or state (Kelley and Trebilcock, p. 101). ... These common elements or common points include national consciousness, national language, national symbols, national colors, blood ties, and a nation’s history among others (Jedwab, p 40). Importance of National Identity National identity is important because it gives an individual a sense of belonging to a particular country or nation. National identity is known to strengthen the cohesion of citizens of a particular nation (Tierney, p 90). National identity brings about unity and cooperation among individuals of the same nation because they unite with fellow countrymen to achieve common national goals such as fighting common threats and protecting members of a nation (Smith, p 14). National identity is known to promote patriotism and a love for one’s nation (Day, p 12). Multiculturalism and National Identity of Canada a. Historical Perspective In Canada, multiculturalism exclusively refers to the concerns and attention given to cultural diversity. These concerns addres s issues related to linguistic diversity, religious diversity, racism, cultural identity, and immigrant integration (Day, p 48). The history of multiculturalism and national identity in Canada dates back to 1867 when Canada was officially recognized as a country. Since then, issues of cultural diversity have been part of policies in the country (Jedwab, p 23). The initial concerns that brought about the need for multiculturalism and national identity in Canada were inspired by the need to foster good relationship between the original people of that country and the state, assimilate immigrants, and bring together the ‘two founding nations’ of Canada, namely, the French and British

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Research Methods Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Research Methods - Assignment Example The research is divided into various topics that clearly explain each theme that the research is based on. Firstly, it focuses on various causes of absenteeism in schools. In this the roles of parents, teachers and the community at large of ensuring that students are always in schools are analyzed. Secondly, the article gives a connection between the absenteeism and exam failure. In this case, the essay explains in depth how school work accumulated up to a level that the student can no longer catch up with other students. Lastly, the study highlights the kind of life that the student lives once they clear school. In this case, the essay demonstrates how the student fails to fit well into the community. According to the research, the student will end being not very useful to the society should measures to restore them are not considered. The intention of this study was to probe the effect of constant communication on the general performance of online modules. The article makes an argument around the worth of effective communication in online units and the rationale of the achievement a scholar experiences when they succeed in an online course. The purpose the research is to find justification, to some aforementioned interests. Accordingly, the researcher was conducted in eight week through the analysis of students of an online module. This investigation incorporated the following strategy to observe classroom activity and online communication amongst student’s geographical location, maturity and cultural diversity are the most imperative fundamental dynamics. Additionally, the considerable statistics gathered by Mouffe, (2013) in their study describe the prospective consequences of failures and success was predictable. The research paper is divided into two parts; the first part investigates extent of the relationship between tutors and online students. In this the paper finds out various channels and

Friday, July 26, 2019

Talk Talk Plc and its Service Marketing Literature review

Talk Talk Plc and its Service Marketing - Literature review Example ecided on maintaining market transparency and competition rather than resort to prescriptive regulation to protect consumers’ interests (Annual Report 2011, p. 11). 2.1.3 The UK government has made it a priority to support and fund the rollout of superfast broadband networks in rural communities. This should aid in the development of viable markets in places in the UK which were considered economically unfeasible (Annual Report 2011, p. 9). 2.2 Economic 2.2.1 The protracted recovery in the broad economy and the continued economic weakness in the European region will continue to influence the performance of UK business in general, including internet service providers (Annual Report 2011). 2.2.2 Competition is fierce such that if network services proved unreliable compared to the rival firms, this creates customer churn (turnover). The cost of switching among ISP services is low and therefore customers may easily abandon their service in favour of a rival firm (Annual Report 201 1). 2.3 Social 2.3.1 Social networking continues to gain momentum among internet users, aside from the growing dependence on the internet as a source of information for work and school. In addition, the continued popularity of television as a broadcast entertainment medium presents an opportunity for the convergence of television content with ISP services (Annual Report 2011). 2.4 Technological 2.4.1 Data security and integrity is a continuing concern in the digital telecommunications industry. Loss of customer data attributable to data protection breaches may damage the firm’s reputation and cause the imposition of fines (Annual Report 2011). 2.4.2 The development in fibre optic technology has begun to push demand for fibre access, precipitating the need for wholesale product development that... This essay discusses that TalkTalk is presently making a bid to gain higher quality service and thereby improve the profit margins, even at the expense of losing 43,000 or more customers who have chosen the company only on the basis of low prices. By doing so, the firm adopts a bolder strategy that accomplishes the twin purpose of (1) adjusting from weaknesses created by the recent demerger on the one hand, and (2) assuming a better position to address the increasingly competitive environment in the face of a challenging regulatory and economic environment. PESTEL shows that there are challenges as well as opportunities which face the entire industry. SWOT shows that TalkTalk is equipped with strengths in the form of technological innovations and strategic partnerships, and that its weaknesses are being remedied by adopting a revised strategic outlook and resolving its problems with service quality, customer billing problems, and lacklustre performance. TalkTalk is innovating in its service product, has the advantage of place and time, is rethinking its price strategy, and linking promotional efforts in a meaningful way to people’s economic realities. Process, physical evidence and people are seen to support the innovations being adopted in the product strategy. Finally, the firm is adopting more profitable service strategies as defined by Lovelock and Wirtz in building loyal ties based on quality, adopting greater transparency in handling complaints, and providing enhanced service quality and productivity.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Assessment and Evaluation Strategies Learning Essay

Assessment and Evaluation Strategies Learning - Essay Example The outcome that has been decided is that the learners will be able to relate to the need to maintain client confidentiality and the need to maintain confidentiality of organizational information to work-related situations. They will also be able to identify various types of work-related harassment and the consequences of such actions. The two weeks of online training has used online power point presentations, animations, and flash presentations to teach these issues, where students of various ethnic backgrounds and various experiences have interacted. Now the idea is to create a strategy to evaluate and assess the learning. The assessment process must consider students like Joe Antone, a member of the Pima Indian Community, who is experiencing work in the healthcare environment for the first time. Comparison: Two assessment methods that can be used in such programs are quiz and self-test questions. In this program, while going through the course, the students will come across the self-test questions, without attempting which no student can go into the next section of the teaching. Thus this becomes mandatory for each and every student to attempt these tests. Moreover, suitable software can be used to add a navigable menu and search function, where the students can search the answers from the module and answer it. Each student can get two chances. At the end of the session, there would be a quiz of multiple choice type questions, where the learner would have one chance to answer it. Leads in the form of images can be incorporated in the quiz, and the learner can post the answer to the tutor (Benjamin, Robbins, Kung, 2006). While the first one assesses the knowledge in steps throughout the module, most learners can get 90 to 100% with the use of search function. The last one ge ts a summative assessment of overall conceptual knowledge, and it can grade the results both in percentages and pass-fail methods (McFarlin, 2008). This could be also a

Romania Risk Assessment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words - 1

Romania Risk Assessment - Assignment Example Hazards identified at the level if agency and department and also those in the process were assessed in the process of risk assessment. These hazards were categorized into four groups that included Transportation, Civil, Technological and Natural. In the second stage, entails the reflection of the total risks presented by the hazard that is identified. At this point, the group comes together to undertake the process of risk assessment in Romania. During the period of assessment, some of the two issues that are key and need to be considered are; the likelihood assessment and the potential impact examination. The criteria of the likelihood and impact are to be used as the basis for decision making. The system of classification is based on a risk assessment guide in the major management of emergency (DEHLG, 2010). In determining the types of risk that exists it is wise to show the relative lively hood of the risk occurrence against its impact The risk of flooding that is explained by the Romanian Academy Geography Institution extended the distribution site of the sites of Seveso; this provided an opportunity for these areas to be categorized as areas that are prone to Natech event. In Romania, areas that are categorized as flood risk occupy a larger surface hence increasing the probability of the occurrence of Natech with the major cause flooding. The largest area of the site of Seveso that could be affected by the floods is located in the central and western part of Romania. Sites of Seveso can also be found in Mures, Hunedoara and Alba counties. However, other counties in Romania which do not have the Seveso Sites and have a high risk of being affected by the floods are majorly at the west and they include Olt-South, Caransebes-South-West, Giurgiu, and Caras (European Environment Agency, 2010). The year 2003 was exceptional when view from a climatic point. Most of the part of

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Ad Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ad Analysis - Essay Example that I have selected is an ad depicting the poster for a new fragrance in the market that is called ‘Fantasy Twist’ launched by the famous artist Britney Spears. The unique thing about this fragrance is that it states it is 2 fragrances in 1 meaning that the perfume offers two different scents in the same bottle. The ad also shows two images of Britney Spears – in order to create two different perceptions or uses of the perfume, making it appealing to a larger number of people. By this I mean that the ad shows Britney in two different forms – the photo on top is in silver indicating the use of the perfume by day and the photo at the bottom shows her in black, indicating the use of the perfume at night. At first glance, the perfume looks very interesting because it offers something new and not many perfumes have two fragrances in them. This advertisement displays the aspect of womanhood at its best, with a unique fragrance that at its first glance appeals to the minds of the public however looks ordinary after carefully examining and understanding the use of the product. It must however be understood that since the model in the ad is Britney Spears, an artist who emphasizes the notion of feminism, the fragrance and the ad will only appeal to women and not men, for the purpose of purchase. Nonetheless, her photo looks very seductive so as to attract male attention to view the ad, which is the general perception upon looking at the photo from a man’s point of view. I have selected this advertisement because it is about a product that most people use – perfumes. Moreover, products that are endorsed by celebrities or launched as a part of their fashion lines tend to sell more in the industry just because of the brand value. Even if the product may not be good, the public tends to buy it anyway because of the goodwill attached to the celebrity that appeals to the minds of the consumers. Thus, as opposed to an ordinary perfume produced by a company, I

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

ART Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 19

ART - Essay Example chnique here was creating a painting with the use of oil and water and incorporating techniques, which brought out beautiful art as the two liquids displayed their unique characteristics of resistance. It was primarily a floatation technique presented on a background with a gradation texture, where the canvas used would be laid flat on any particular surface. There are two major artworks that Kirkland created using this technique and style, of which one is where he makes use of oil paint and water and gold color on linen. Once the paint and water have been used in the canvas, the artist then makes use of different tools such as q-tips, tissue papers etc, in order to create various designs or patterns on the canvas. Thus, Concerning Burma is one such painting that has been created using this technique, and I believe the artist has been able to capture the essence of the abstraction, and create a floating effect using his particular style. The artwork, which used an inventive technique, definitely is testimony to the fire that was inside the artist, and I believe, that through his painting, he has been able to capture that fire for the viewers to see. The red, gold and reddish brown flame like abstractions on a surface of orange definitely give the effect of fire and thus, I believe the artist wants to evoke passion and fire in the viewers to do whatever they wanted in life, and to encourage them to achieve things they wanted to. As is evident from the painting, his technique mostly incorporated elements of both accident and control, thus both these aspects were complimentary of each other and the end result was elegant painting with multi-layered swirling and bubbling patterns. Therefore, in my opinion, the artwork under study is one fine piece of art and I believe it embodies the spirit of the artist and thus inspires the viewers, especially those, who are looking for a source of

Monday, July 22, 2019

Free

Freedom of speech Essay Introduction: The American Flag is slowly being folded into a perfect triangle by soldiers. Bystanders watch as a twenty one gun salute is given to a veteran’s family who gave his life for our country. The family weeps over their lost loved one. This sacred moment in time is one that no one should interrupt. A group out of Kansas known as Westboro Baptist Church (WBC) travels around the country protesting at soldiers’ funerals that the death is God’s punishment to the U. S. for tolerating homosexuality in the country. This so called â€Å"church† is able to hold protests due to constitutional rights and express their freedom of speech; however they should not be allowed to protest at funerals out of respect for the deceased and disturbing the peace. The Westboro Baptist Church is disturbing the public’s peace, but still has the freedom of speech to picket and protest what they please. Funerals should be sacred, and therefore Congress should pass a law placing limits on where it is acceptable to protest. Research Section: The Brief Bio of Pastor Fred Phelps states, in Topeka, Kansas, Fred Phelps founded the Westboro Baptist Church in 1955. Phelps was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, but instead enrolled for Bible/Ministerial training at Bob Jones College. Joined by his family and friends, Phelps is still leading the church today. The Westboro Baptist Church is a non – profit organization, and the church considers itself an â€Å"Old School† Baptist Church. The Westboro Church groups are traveling around the country making stops several times a week to protest and picket. â€Å"Targets include schools the group deems to be accepting of homosexuality; Catholic, Lutheran, and other Christian denominations that WBC feels are heretical; and funerals for people murdered or killed in accidents like plane crashes and for American soldiers killed in Iraq and Afghanistan, a tactic the group started in 2005† (The Anti-Defamation League). Not only directed at soldiers and gays, The Westboro Baptist Church fuels on any tragedy happening in the United States. After the natural disaster of hurricane Sandy, the church protests that it was a sign from God. The Constitution, under the Bill of Rights, protects this groups’ advocacy to protest wherever they wish. The church holds signs saying â€Å"Pope in hell†, â€Å"Thanks God for dead soldiers†, â€Å"God Hates Fags† and anything else to offend the people or groups it is towards. They also wear American flags around their waste and will kick it around on the ground. The community cannot endure the verbal torture any long and this has led to court cases and out breaks. Jonsson states â€Å"While Westboro is usually careful to stay within the law and clear protests with local police, counter protesters have in the past attacked members of the group, even pouring coffee on them and spitting on them.† Argument: The Westboro Church should not be able to disturb the peace and privacy at a funeral nor picket institutions or individuals for supporting homosexuality. The signs they display are disturbing, inappropriate, and offensive. The Westboro Church’s controversial appearances have led to several court cases dealing with places restrictions on the freedom to protest, particularly distance limits on how close you are authorized to protest from a funeral site. One case was brought forward by Albert Snyder, father of Mathew Snyder, a 20 year-old solider killed in Iraq. Ariane de Vogue stated â€Å"The case, one of the most controversial on the court docket, was brought by Albert Snyder, who sued the church, after members picketed the funeral of his son, Lance Corporal Matthew Snyder, who died in Iraq†. The Church has many opinions that should not be said or displayed to the public due to the emotional cause and pain the public has to endure. Having hurt the American citizens, the Westboro Church, under the first amendment, has the freedom of speech. The First Amendment states Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Therefore, this gives the Westboro Baptist Church the right to protest in public while being protected by federal law. The Church groups were standing far enough away from the funeral that the court could not prove the protest was exactly pointed at the Snyder’s son’s burial. Warren Richey stated â€Å"The protesters stood in a cordoned off area approved by police about a thousand feet from the church.† The Supreme Court used the distance the group was away from the burial to say that the protest was not pointed directly at Snyder’s family during the burial. Even though The Westboro Church has the First Amendment protecting them, they are still disturbing the peace and offending the public by protesting. Our freedom of speech is protected by the Constitution which is protected by our soldiers, a freedom Westboro Baptist Church has abused by protesting the very soldiers who fight for this freedom. Holding signs saying â€Å"you’re going to hell†, â€Å"God hates America†, and â€Å"Thank God for IEDs†, are insulting to the public and the country and are affecting Americans everywhere. â€Å"Snyder has called the day his son died ‘the worst day of his life’. His grief was compounded, he said, by being targeting by the church’s demonstrations. ‘It is one thing no family should ever have to go through’†(De Vogue, Ariane). The definition of disturbing the peace is â€Å"A person who fights in a public area, or who brings about the threat of fighting, anyone who is purposefully disruptive of an otherwise peaceful public assembly, one who solicits money while in a public place a person who is drunk, and unruly in a public area, or any group that participates in an unlawful assembly† (For the people). Westboro would fall under anyone who is purposefully disruptive of an otherwise peaceful public assembly. The church is showing poor judgment and an utter disregard for human dignity when they protest at a funeral. Proposal: With all the disturbances that the Westboro Baptist Church has caused, Congress should incorporate litigation to prevent insults to others. Congress must pass a law placing limits on the extent of free speech and the right to protest in regard to memorial services. Given the freedom of speech, Congress cannot prohibit the protestors from displaying signs that are obscene or stating their opinions, but can pass a law stating how far away from the funeral the protests have to be. Williams stated, â€Å"Indeed, in the incident in question, Westboro complied with police requests to stay 1,000 feet from the funeral, and all but the tops of its members’ signs were hidden from mourners’ view†. Congress should take this into consideration and reflect upon veterans and American citizens civil rights. In my opinion, family members should not have to face such obscenities during a period of mourning. The First Amendment does not prevent Westboro Baptist Church from offending the family members and citizens from their perverse signs and protests. Therefore, many civil law suits have not proven effective towards the church under the right of the First Amendment and freedom of speech. Most Americans whose thoughts are negative towards the church’s views choose to hold counter protests in support of veteran’s family members who have been killed in combat (Policinski, 2011). Congress passing the law should help these families during a time of grief to remember their loved one, and not have to see the disgraceful sign of hatred to this country. Conclusion: The First Amendment to the Constitution is a privilege Americans take grand ownership of. However, a group of individuals from the Westboro Baptist Church are taking advantage of this right we all have, pushing the freedom of speech to the point where citizens are questioning its true value. Individuals are starting to come together to counter protest toward Westboro so they will stop insulting those that fight for this country. Policinski stated â€Å"A few weeks ago, in Nashville, Tenn., more than 1,000 counter-protesters turned out in support of family members of a soldier killed in combat, overwhelming the presence of a small Westboro contingent†. The daily lives of Americans should not have to be interrupted by such insanity, and having to see vulgar signs shooting down the citizens and their country, also that their nation’s flag is being tossed around like a rag doll. If we fail to police our own responsibilities as citizens, America will shrink back to the oppressed nation it once was. Congress must push to clarify and define what is protected In the Constitution and end this travesty that is disrupting our peace. Works Cited: â€Å"Disturbing The Peace.† For The People. Morgan and Morgan. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Gene, Policinski. Commentary: Inside The First Amendment: Laws Are Not Best Way To Thwart Westboro. Daily Record, The (Baltimore, MD) (n.d.): Legal Collection. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. God Hates Fags. God Hates Fags. GHF, 2012.Web. 27 Nov, 2012. Jonsson, Patrik. â€Å"What recourse now to Westboro Baptist Churchs rude protests?† Christian Science Monitor. 3 Mar. 2011. 1Pg. Academic Search Complete. Web.28 Nov. 2012. Richey, Warren. â€Å"Supreme Court: hurtful speech of Westboro Baptist Church is protected.† Christian Science Monitor. 3 Mar. 2011. 1pg. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. The Anti-Defamation League. The Anti-Defamation League. ADL, 2012. Web. 19 Nov, 2012. â€Å"The Preamble to The Bill of Rights.† Give me liberty. (N.p.) (n.d.) Web. 27 Nov, 2012. Vogue, De Ariane. â€Å"Supreme Court OK’s Protests at Military Funeral.† ABCnews. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. Vogue, De Ariane. â€Å"Westboro Baptist Church Comes to the Supreme Court.† ABCnews. 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. Williams, Patricia. License And Liberty. Nation 292.13 (2011): 9. Legal Collection. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Effect of Surface Area in an Experiment

Effect of Surface Area in an Experiment Title: The effect of surface area in an experiment. Chosen factor: effects of surface area Chosen experiment: Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid (option 2) Questions: Will increasing the surface area of the calcium carbonate slow down the reaction rate? How do you increase the surface are of Calcium Carbonate? Will increasing the surface are of Calcium Carbonate speed up the reaction rate? Will the smaller surface area Calcium carbonate have a faster reaction rate than the larger surface area Calcium carbonate? Background Information: What is a reaction rate? A reaction rate is the rate in which a chemical reaction occurs. (Britannica.com, 2017) The reaction rate can be increased by increasing the surface area (crushed material). For example, in custard powder factories, there is a high rate of the custard powder exploding, because of the larger surface area. This happens because the finer the substance is crushed, more particles are exposed to the other substance in the experiment (BBC,2014) To increase surface area, the material needs to be crushed into a powder. For less surface area, the material needs to stay in a big clump. Diagram sourced off (BBC, 2014) This diagram shows the reaction rate of a greater surface area (blue) is much faster than the smaller surface area (red). The finer a substance is, generally, the faster the reaction rate will be. The larger surface area can also act as a Catalyst. (chemguide,2013) Collision theory is a theory based off particles of elements colliding together, which creates a chemical reaction. Any collisions without enough energy wont produce a reaction. For a reaction to occur, there must be energy within the atom which will cause them to collide together to create a chemical reaction. (BBC,2014) Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid: In the experiment the Calcium Carbonate will be crushed, then combined with the hydrochloric acid. Alongside the crushed calcium carbonate will be two other different grades of Calcium Carbonate which will have a lower surface area to each other. The different grades reaction times will be compared to each other in 3 different experiments. Experiment formula: calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water CaCoÂÂ ³ + 2HCI CaClÂÂ ² + H2O + COÂÂ ² (Chemguide, 2013) Hypothesis: It is hypothesised that when the surface area is increased, the reaction rate will speed up. When the surface area is decreased the reaction, rate will slow down because, the chemical can only react with the outside of the substance and chew away at it until there is none left, but with an increased surface area there is more atoms to react with compared to a small surface area. The independent variable that will be changed is the surface area of the calcium carbonate (small, medium, large). The dependent variable will be the time of the ration rate in each experiment. The controlled variable will be the amount of calcium carbonate and the amount of hydrochloric acid that is in each experiment. Method: Collect all equipment needed for the experiment. Setup experiment, then add 100ml of Hydrochloric acid to each of the beakers. (when adding Hydrochloric acid to the beakers, ensure eyes are at the same level of the beaker to make an accurate measurement. Add all 3 Different grades of Calcium Carbonate to each one of the beakers (make sure Calcium Carbonate is placed in each beaker with care.) Setup should look like this: Start timer and record results in a table as shown below. Surface area: Time: Large (powder) 1:02mins Medium (medium chips) 10mins+ Small (big chips) 10mins When the reaction completely stopped, all chemicals are tipped into the sink and the sink is washed clean of chemicals. All equipment that has been used is cleaned, and packed into the box. Wet and dry wipe table with disinfectant, ensuring all chemicals have been removed off the surface. Aim: The aim of the experiment was to find out if a larger surface are has a faster reaction time than a smaller surface area. Equipment list: Stopwatches (3) Calcium Carbonate: (large chips, 18g) (Small chips, 18g) (powder, 18g) Hydrochloric acid (270ml) 1M Watch glasses (3) Spatula Measuring cylinder Beakers (3) Gloves Apron Goggles Risk assessment: Possible Risk Prevention Glass breakage Carry all beakers with care. Do not try to cool glass down with cold water otherwise it will smash. Chemical spillage To not run with chemicals, and watch what you are doing with your body parts. Chemical contact with skin or cuts Wash out thoroughly Results: 1st experiment: Surface area: Time: Observations: Clarity: Large 1:02 mins Bubbling reaction, slowly dissolving, sizzling noise, long time to dissolve, white bubbles. Clear Medium 10 mins+ Bubbling reaction, makes liquid cloudy, sizzling noise, reaction is slow, little bubbles, slowed at 8 mins. Cloudy Small 10 mins+ Furious reaction in the first 10 seconds, slowed down at 15 seconds, loud sizzling noise finished just over 1 min. Very cloudy 2nd Experiment: Surface area: Time: Observations: Clarity: Large 1:01 mins Medium 10 mins+ Small 10 mins+ 3rd Experiment: Surface area: Time: Observations: Clarity: Large 1:09 mins Medium 10 mins + Small 10 mins + (Made by Mac Ross on excel) (Made by Mac Ross on excel) Discussion: All results were in seconds difference to each other. All experiments had the exact same reaction happen every time. All research that was taken was accurate. The hypothesis which was stated was It is hypothesised that when the surface area is increased, the reaction rate will speed up. When the surface area is decreased the reaction, rate will slow down because, the chemical can only react with the outside of the substance and chew away at it until there is none left, but with an increased surface area there is more atoms to react with compared to a small surface area. This hypothesis was supported, because the smaller the surface area was, the faster the reaction happened. Surface area is used in many different scenarios in the world to this day. One of these is in carburetted engines. When fuel goes though the carburettor the fuel gets made into a mist, which is far more explosive than just a drop of fuel. The graphs both show that all of the experiments were very similar. The lar ge surface area experiment when significantly quicker than the other 2. With an average of 1:04 minutes for reaction rate it smashed the other 2. The reaction mainly happened in the first 15 seconds and then slowed down a lot, but it was still fizzing. The other 2 experiments were fizzing the whole time with no increase or decrease in speed with fizzing. The Medium surface area experiment had a misty fizz to it but it wasnt anywhere near as aggressive as the large surface area experiment. We stopped the experiment at 10 minutes as it was taking too long for the experiment to end, but there was defiantly a decrease in size. The small surface area experiment was a very slow reaction compared to the large surface are reaction. Its bubbles were big and not aggressive at all. We also had to end this experiment at 10 minutes because it was taking too long. Evaluation: The Experiments went according to plan, and there were no mishaps. Having 3 experiments going at once saved us a lot of time, and having all of the calcium carbonated crushed up and ready to go also saved us lots of time, which worked well. Not being able to complete the whole reaction for the small and medium surface area reactions was something that didnt work. Our group went together like peas and carrots. To make the experiment more accurate I would have used a stronger acid, so that we could get a result for each reaction, a bigger working space so that everything wasnt cluttered, to accurate measuring equipment, so we could improve on the accuracy, and I would have taken better photos to put in the write up so that people can see the layout better. If I was to repeat this experiment again I would use less calcium carbonate and a stronger hydrochloric acid, so that we could get a time for each experiment instead of ending the experiment at 10 minutes. This also would have given us a better understanding of how surface area affects the reaction rate. Conclusion: When the surface area is increased between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, the reaction rate is sped up. The hypothesis was supported by the results in the experiment. The results showed that the research and hypothesis were all accurate, and the results were that the larger is surface area is the fast it will react. The small the surface area was, the slower the reaction was, but the experiment did have some mishaps, which can be easily be tweaked to be the perfect experiment. But the experiment was successful in finding the result we were looking for, not only because of chemical reason but because of how our group worked together as well. Reference list: Bbc.co.uk. (2017). BBC GCSE Bitesize: Effect of surface area. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/chemical_economics/reaction3rev1.shtml [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017]. Chemguide.co.uk. (2017). The effect of surface area on rates of reaction. [online] Available at: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/basicrates/surfacearea.html [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017]. Chemistry LibreTexts. (2017). Collision Theory. [online] Available at: https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Modeling_Reaction_Kinetics/Collision_Theory [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Marketing plan of LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival

Marketing plan of LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival Listed as a not for profit organisation since 1996, the Melbourne Fashion Festival Ltd, now known as the LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival, has always been at the forefront of the fashion world. Over the years, the LMFF has become one of Australias top fashion events and focuses on target markets that are fashion oriented, social oriented and a mixture of both. The events success can be recognised by the efforts made by many individuals and businesses that have been with the organisation for many years. On March 14, 2011, the LMFF launched Fashion Full Stop: Decades of Australian Fashion, an event that celebrated designers, along with many labels and styles that have shaped Australias history in fashion. With tickets ranging from $79 to $39, 4000 fans filled the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centres plenary auditorium. Due to this, the event has been deemed a large priority in future shows and an extremely important opportunity to raise the profile of the organisation (LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival Pty Ltd, 2011) Therefore the main objective of this event is to be recognised both nationally and internationally as the leading event of its kind and stimulate activity across the retail, clothing, footwear, and creative sectors. The purpose of this marketing plan is to identify LMFFs many strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats ; and these must be used in union with several marketing strategies, actions and a budget of $47 200 to eventually achieve the overall objective. Although the companys strengths and opportunities outweigh the organisations weaknesses and threats, the growing competition within the fashion industry and changes in the marketing environment need to be of focus. For the event to be a success, the organisation must modify or maintain the strategies and actions to directly reflect these changes. Event Information The aim of the Fashion Full Stop Opening Runway event is to celebrate and promote iconic designers, labels, styles and moments from the 1960s to today, stimulate sales and present Melbourne as a precinct full of design superiority. Assessment of the Marketing Environment Internal Environment Strengths: Since the LMFF initiated in 1996, the unique LOreal brand image has flourished Created brand awareness, recognition and emotional value to its target audiences Has built a reputable media profile Has been able to grow and produce a diverse range of activities Showcases many strong brand names and sponsors Sales within Melbourne and other parts of Australia have skyrocketed Increased staff attitude towards the event, opinions about the event, and expertise and experience during the event Weaknesses: Certain markets are not focused, e.g. low income earners. This may be intentional as the event focuses on exclusivity. Due to the lack of detail about the event in regards to online advertising, television advertisements and more, previous customers may have a perception that the event may be similar to the previous year or be similar to competition. External Environment 3.21 Micro-Environment Competitive analysis and Venn Diagram Direct competitors (offer similar, but somewhat differentiated events) include: Location Prices Target Market Offerings and/or Sales Date and time Rosemount Australian Fashion Week Sydney Similar Same Similar Different Mercedes Benz Fashion Festival Brisbane Similar, but offer free events Similar Achieved an increase of 61% on ticket sales and 33% on attendance in 2008 (Lindsay Bennett Marketing, 2010) Different Motorola Melbourne Spring Fashion Week Melbourne Nearly all events are free Similar Very similar Different Perth Fashion Festival Perth Similar Same Very similar Different New Zealand Fashion Week Auckland (outside Australia) Very similar Similar Very similar Same Similar offerings Party Eclectic Well known SOCIAL HIGH PROFILE INTERNATIONAL Indirect competitors (seek to provide the same benefits to the consumers, but in a different form) include: Port Fairy Folk Festival Future Music Festival Moomba Festival 3.22 Macro Environment PESTE Analysis Political forces/legal and regulatory influences The LMFF is required to uphold and adhere to many political and legal regulatory practices and the most important include: Drinking laws: all underage visitors must be accompanied by an adult in bars and dining rooms (LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival Pty Ltd, 2011). Entry: refused entry is given to any person that is affected by alcohol/drugs, behaves aggressively or reduces the reputation of the LMFF or any organisation associated with the LMFF (LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival Pty Ltd, 2011). Intellectual property: in the interest of all the stakeholders, registered designs, trademarks, patents, and copyrights all need to be respected by using intellectual property laws. It encourages technological innovation and artistic expression in industries (Commonwealth of Australia , 2010). Economic trends In economic troubles, fashion, the arts and entertainment often get sacrificed because of a decrease in disposable income. However, the slowdown within worldwide expenditure due to the impact of the global economic crisis has had a little effect on the LMFF. In fact, consumers are still spending a large amount of income, visiting the festival on an annual basis, and sponsorship is still going strong. Socio-cultural trends According to Easey (2008), fashion is ultimately about change.many of these changes are brought about by designers trying to create something new to satisfy customers, but others are because of influences beyond the control of designers or manufacturers.some are within a companys control and others are way beyond it. Therefore, the LMFF opening runway show will have to focus on the current needs and wants of the target market and find a way to satisfy them. Technological trends In several industries, the development and utilisation of new technology gives the opportunity of improving a consumers experience. Recently, designers such as Alexander McQueen and Alexander Wang used technology to stream their fashion shows live online (Moore, 2010). The brand DKNY has also started using a barcode technology for invitations and seating arrangements for its fashion show (Moore, 2010). This type of technology could be developed for use in the LMFF opening runway show. Environmental trends Recently, an ethical fashion forum has developed a mission to support  and  promote  sustainable practices, facilitate  collaboration, raise  awareness  and provide the  tools  and  resources  needed to reduce poverty, reduce environmental damage and raise standards in the fashion industry (Ethical Fashion Forum, 2011). Therefore, the push to become green is fairly large on fashion shows and designers. SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Established in 1996 Unique LOreal brand image Not for profit organisation Stimulates sales within Melbourne and several brands Presents Melbourne as a centre of design superiority Diverse range of activities Unique Strong brand names Good reputation Popular shows created annually/positive track record Staff attitude and opinions Staff expertise and experience Existing media profile/reputable media partners or sponsors Location Celebrity attraction Although variety of offerings, certain markets are not focused on Perception that customers may already know whats of offer Lack of detail Current marketing campaigns are shallow and not environmentally friendly OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Increase visitors and attract tourists Boost retail sales and economy Exposure for sponsors/volunteers Upcoming designers and existing designers to showcase talent Build reputation of Melbourne Opportunities for the LMFF to create something different Competition/growth of other tourism areas in Melbourne Limited finance Infrastructure renewal due to increase of visitors Safety and security Major events throughout the year that target market prefer to spend time and money on Hard to create niche products/services due to continuously changing environment Increase in push to become green Target Market Consumer Information There are three types of target markets: Primary: approximately 50% of attendees, require a small amount of marketing costs, go for the fashion and are loyal to the event. Secondary: approximately 30% of attendees, require a slightly larger amount of marketing costs, use the fashion event as a social experience. Tertiary: approximately 20% of attendees require a large amount of marketing costs; go as its an event close to home. Target Markets and Market Segmentation Market Research For the purpose of improving the LMFF event and in order to determine the characteristics of the primary, secondary and tertiary target markets, secondary research has been used. This information has not been directly extracted from the audience, but instead from a variety of sources. A useful way in identifying the reasons why several target markets visited LMFF was to create a brand bullseye, which takes into account a variety of emotional and functional perceptions, opinions and hot buttons (Skildum-Reid et al, 2007), see appendix 1. Consumer Segmentation The primary target market are associated with the fashion world and are visiting the event to connect with designers, musicians, consumers, and retailers. In other words they are high profile guests who have been actively engaged with the festival throughout its history and continue to support LMFF into its future (LOreal Melbourne Fashion Festival Pty Ltd, 2011). The secondary target market enjoys socialising, spending a large amount of disposable income and are easily influenced by peers and the media. The tertiary are people that are interested in the arts, but use location and convenience to satisfy their needs and wants. Demographics Variables Target Market Primary Secondary Age 21 50 18 30 Gender Female and Male Female and Male Marital Status No No Education Yes Yes Children living at home No No Income Middle to upper class, large amount of income, between $50 000 $110 000 Lower class, large amount of disposable income, equal to or less than $30 000 Internet use/ type High/Broadband High/Broadband Online buying habits Medium High and know how to buy online tickets, etc Television viewing preferences Pay television Pay television and free to air television Transport use Private Public and Private Beverage and food preferences Expensive and prefer alcohol and tea/coffee Cheap and prefer alcohol and sweet drinks Employment status/occupation Employed, usually in the fashion industry Student, unemployed or new worker Location Both domestic and international Domestic and urban/metropolitan areas (Information collected from EIT Inc, 2005; Frankie, 2011; Fashion TV, 2011) Psychographics Variables Target Market Primary Secondary Lifestyle City prone Enjoys shopping Quality oriented Frequent buying behavior Interested in the arts music, dance etc Upscale and well-off Trendy Globetrotters Value-for-money oriented Social status activities No major responsibilities City prone Big spenders Personality Independent/Opinion leader Brand and fashion conscious Very sensitive to advertising Competitive Always searching for the newest trends and products representative of their social image Influenced by peers Outgoing Opinion formers Street-smart (Information collected from EIT Inc, 2005; Frankie, 2011; Fashion TV, 2011) Objectives Overall Business Objective The overall business objective of this event is to be recognised both nationally and internationally as the leading event of its kind and to stimulate activity across the retail, clothing, footwear, and creative sectors. SMART marketing objectives The objectives below conform to marketing standards of setting objectives which are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results oriented, and Time bound (Skildum-Reid et al, 2007). To obtain international and national prime time stories on channel FTV, various advertisements on national radio station NOVA, and a major advertising campaign with a colour photo in the magazine Frankie, one month before the event. To increase ticket sales domestically and internationally by 10% compared to the previous years opening runway event. To increase awareness and recognition of the brand LOreal in Australia from 20% to 35% by February 2012. To obtain five more sponsors prior to the event in order to increase funds by $150 000. Marketing Strategies Link to objective Rationale Strategies Measurement mechanism 1 This will achieve a large market penetration in the target markets and will encourage ticket sales before the event 1.1 Provide digital footage of highlights of last years event to various television and radio stations Number of televised stories that use the material 1.2 Create opportunities for video and audio interviews with designers of the event Number of interviews 1.3 Create and distribute press kits to local and international media Quality and acceptance of media kit 2 This will achieve market growth and showcase the event as being popular and well-known 2.1 Release early bird tickets at a discounted price to loyal customers Advance ticket sales and/or revenue, customer database 2.2 Provide online ticket purchases through connection of event website and ticketing company Ticket sales and/or revenue, customer database of event and ticketing company 2.3 Cross-promote with the event designers, singers and dancers through various advertising campaigns Number and quality of cross promotions 3 This will boost ticket sales and product sales before the event due to brand loyalty and recognition 3.1 Offer and provide samples of LOreal products to customers Number and frequency of customer purchases, customer opinion and satisfaction 3.2 Cross-promote event with LOreal advertisements Number, quality and success of cross promotions 3.3 Start an online social page e.g. facebook to discuss the brand/product/event Number of visits/hits/comments/likes/followers 4 This will allow the event to produce better offerings in regards to the exclusivity of the event and will increase the events profile 4.1 Create a sponsorship proposal and press kit that stands out from competitors Acceptance of proposal and number of responses, number of proposals from competitors Action Plan Actions Action Officer Time Frame (months before event) 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Strategy 1.1 Action 1.11 Contact FTV and NOVA representatives to find out deadline Public relations/media team Action 1.12 Collect and compose footage of event and audio interviews Public relations/media team Action 1.13 Send to FTV and NOVA by deadline Public relations/media team Strategy 1.2 Action 1.21 Develop an interview script Public relations/media team Action 1.22 Contact agents of designers or designers directly and set up a meeting to interview Public relations/media team Action 1.23 Collect and condense interview data into clear information Public relations/media team Action 1.24 Send to editor of magazine by deadline along with press kit Public relations/media team Strategy 1.3 Action 1.31 Contact media representatives to find out deadline Public relations/media team Action 1.32 Write media release and information Public relations/media team Action 1.33 Develop press kits to send to magazine Public relations/media team Action 1.34 Send to editor by deadline Public relations/media team Strategy 2.1 Action 2.11 Contact ticketing company to inform them of intention to sell tickets to event, with prices and discharge information Marketing team/Ticketing manager or assistant Action 2.12 Create online flyer to advertise event and early bird discount Marketing team Action 2.13 Send flyer to ticketing company database and event database through both mail and e-mail Administration Strategy 2.2 Action 2.21 Liaise with marketing team of ticketing company about website link Marketing team Action 2.22 Create link within current event website with information and prices of tickets IT team, marketing team, ticketing manager or assistant Strategy 2.3 Action 2.31 Develop a partnership agreement Public relations, marketing team Action 2.32 Contact agents and set up a meeting to propose potential partnership  arrangement Public relations, marketing team Action 2.33 Create and edit advertisement/promotion Marketing Action 2.34 Inject cross-promotion into public Marketing Strategy 3.1 Action 3.11 Contact LOreals sales and marketing team and set up a way to receive an x amount of samples Sales and Marketing team Action 3.12 Contact various intermediaries such as makeup counters, hair salons, fashion magazines to inform about samples Marketing team Action 3.13 Distribute samples to intermediaries to implement in marketing campaigns Sales and distribution team Strategy 3.2 Action 3.21 Develop a partnership agreement Public Relations, marketing team Action 3.22 Contact LOreals marketing team and set up a meeting to propose potential partnership  arrangement Public Relations, marketing team Action 3.23 Create and edit advertisement/promotion Marketing Action 3.24 Inject cross-promotion into public Marketing Strategy 3.3 Action 3.31 Create a user login on facebook.com IT Team Action 3.32 Organise and disseminate information and media on profile page with links to several other pages and event website IT Team, media team, marketing team Strategy 4.1 Action 4.11 Write a marketing plan Marketing team Action 4.12 Identify competitors and sponsors Marketing team Action 4.13 Write a sponsorship proposal and press kit Marketing team Action 4.14 Send sponsorship proposal and press kit to identified sponsors Public relations, marketing team Contact sponsors and decide on sponsorship funds Marketing team Marketing Budget The marketing budget was based on a calculation of 20% of the total price of 4000 tickets sold in 2011. Ticket cost Total $79 x 4000 $316 000 $59 x 4000 $236 000 $39 x 4000 $156 000 $708 000 Average $236 000 Total Marketing Budget after 20% $47 200 Objectives Need Description/Calculation of Costs Cost 1 Advertising/publicity costs for Frankie and NOVA and FTV Frankie: 3 x Full Page, W: 210mm x H: 275mm @ $4670 each (Frankie, 2011) $14010 NOVA: 20 x 30 second ads over 7 days, 6am 6pm prime time @ $50 each (Australia Trade, 2010) $1000 FTV: 10 x 15 minute shows over 7 days, 7pm 7:15pm @ $20 cost per thousand (CPM) of 50, 000 (Boone, 2009) $10 000 Total $25 010 2 Mailing costs 5,000 x letters @ $58c each (Australia Post, 2011) $2900 Ticketing commission 4000 tickets x 10% increase = (4400 x $79) x 0.01 commission $3476 Printing costs 2 colour copy flyers per A4 page = 2500 x A4 pages @ $38c each (Officeworks, 2011) $950 Website development Overall cost (Cmather, 2011) $495 Website maintenance 30 hours @ $30 per hour (Cmather, 2011) $900 Advertising and promotion for cross-promotion with designers Billboard 6m x 3m for 8 weeks @ $1500 per 4 weeks and a one off $300 installation cost à · 2 (halves with cross-promotion) (GOA Billboard, 2011) $1650 Total $10 371 3 Samples cost 20 000 samples @ $10c each $2000 Advertising and promotion costs for cross-promotion with LOreal 25 x national light weight bus stop advertising @ $690 each à · 2 (halves with cross-promotion) (Adshel, 2011) $8 625 Social Website Usage is free $0 Distribution costs Covered by LOreal $0 Total $10 625 4 Printing costs 20 pages x 100 booklets = 2000 colour pages @ 0.38c = $760 + 100 booklets x $1.95 each for binding = $195 (Officeworks, 2011) $955 Mailing costs $1.20 x 100 booklets (Australia Post, 2011) $120 Total $1175 Overall total $47 181 Monitoring and Evaluation Objective 1: Measurement and evaluation mechanisms include: Number of televised stories that use the material Number of gained interviews Quality and acceptance of media kit Continuous partnerships with companies Objective 2: Measurement and evaluation mechanisms include: The difference in the number of ticket sales and/or revenue collected in prior year and current year Customer database increase and loyalty Number and quality of cross promotions Employee satisfaction LMFF annual review statistics Objective 3: Measurement and evaluation mechanisms include: Number and frequency of customer purchases/ LOreal annual review Number and frequency of sample intake Customer opinion, satisfaction, perception, and behaviours through surveys Number, quality and success of cross promotions Number of visits/hits/comments/likes/followers on facebook page Increase in ticket sales for LMFF overall events Objective 4: Measurement and evaluation mechanisms include: Acceptance of proposal Number of responses from sponsorships Number of proposals from competitors to sponsors Number of contracts signed with sponsorships compared to previous years, see appendix 2 Sponsorship funds increase and resource availability Sponsor reliability, efforts made, and perception of event Conclusion and Recommendations The LMFF has repositioned one of its most recently popular events called Fashion Full Stop: Decades of Australian Fashion. This popularity is proven by creative director, Grant Pearce, who stated in previous years, there hasnt been a show on opening night, theres just been a small presentation but this is a major theatrical show (Merhab, 2011). This success has been assisted by creating numerous objectives, marketing strategies, and an action plan that concentrates on increasing advertising, sponsorship and sales. The LMFF needs to continuously check and track the success of their initial objectives and modify or maintain the strategies and actions accordingly. These changes need to directly reflect the target markets and their various needs, wants and demands. Appendix Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Principal and Government partners: Loreal Paris, State Government Victoria Major Partners: Herald Sun, David Jones, Sofitel Luxury Hotels, Pacific Brands, Centralpier Spirit of Docklands, SpecSavers, Paper Stone Scissors, Eye Media, Westfield, City of Melbourne Event Partners: Marie Claire, 565 Lasoo, City of Stonnington, Peroni Italy, Colonial First State Global Asset Management, Woolmark, Sportsgirl Official Product Partners: Champagne Devaux, Yering Station, Lavazza, Lexus, Raffaello, Chambord, Sanpellegrino, Toll Ipec, Nine west, kikki.K, Synergy, Steve Madden Platinum Partners: Chadstone, Deloitte, Victoria Racing Club, Wilson Parking Gold Partners: Middletons, Corrs Chambers Westgarth, Deutsche Bank, MyCatwalk.com, Melbournes GPO, Fashion Weekend Melbourne, Image Box, The Just Group, Collins 234, Nikon, QV Melbourne, Kookai Media Partners: Artichoke, WGSN, Frankie Magazine, Cosmopolitan, Vogue Australia, 3AW 693, FASHIONTREND, FashionTV, Harper Bazaar, Grazia, Nova 100.3FM, InStyle, Madison, Avant Card, Hoyts, Yen

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Prayer in Public School Essay -- Religion Education

In the heart of every religion, there is a way to express one's deepest thoughts and feelings--prayer. Prayer is something that most people due naturally. Whether it is in the morning before you start your day, before a meal, before you go to sleep, or when you just feel the need to express your feelings, prayer is always there. Religious faiths believe that this is central to human life. Even those who are not religious pray. Prayer affects the material universe. Prayer can be defined as an earnest request; a humble entreaty addressed to God, to a god, etc (Webster's). We are allowed to pray publicly anywhere, as long as we don't pray out loud. Yet we all live in a society that does not allow prayer inside public schools. Prayer is also not allowed in public institutions, but we can pray in private institutions, such as church. There is so much emphasis put on prayer in public school, despite the fact that prayer is actually substantial. The First Amendment of the U.S Constitution states "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for the redress of grievances" (Greenberg). This first amendment protects both believers and nonbelievers from government interference in their decision to pray. Students have the right to pray and read the Bible in public schools. Yet the educators and administrators who facilitate our schools cannot lead children in prayer or force them to pray. The constitution also prohibits the following: requiring students to recite prayers in class, saying public prayer at high school games and teachers and co... ... taught, perceived and demonstrated. Religion is a touchy subject and you really have to know what exactly what you are talking about when trying to promote your religion. Prayer in school is also a touchy subject. One side of my family is pro prayer in school and the other is anti prayer in school. I believe that morally a prayer before you start you day is a healthy, productive and cleansing way to live life. Yet to say that praying in school is the way to go would be pushing it. I see prayer as a contagious thing. Not so much in a bad way though. As I stated earlier, when we as a class all gathered for the death of a fellow classmate, one person started to pray and without realizing it, he a started a trend. Prayer is a very powerful and meaningful way to express your deepest thought and feelings and it should be done however, wherever, and whenever you please.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Legacy of the Mafia Minstel Show :: Essays Papers

The Legacy of the Mafia Minstel Show After my Grandfather died in the late 1960's, my Grandmother came to live with us for a short time. It was a wonderful way to learn about my heritage and I got to listen to her stories about when my Father was growing up in San Francisco. I remember a story she told me about when my Dad was around eight years old, about the same time Little Caesar was in the movie theaters. One day he came home from school and told my Grandmother that some kid at school told him that all Italians were cutthroats. My Grandmother got very upset and told him to ignore comments like that, that all it did was reveal the ignorance of the person making that remark, and to always take pride in who you are and your Italian heritage. My Dad looked at my Grandmother and very innocently asked her, "Ma, what's a cutthroat?" Zoom forward around 70 years. My daughter comes homes from school, about the same time The Sopranos was released on HBO, complaining that some kids at school were teasing her and calling her "Mafia Girl." I wish I could say that things have gotten better for Italian Americans and how they are portrayed in popular television and film in the last 70 years, but unfortunately I think it has actually gotten worse. What I call the Mafia Minstrel Show, actors in olive skin face playing mobster for the benefit of those people who lust for violence and racism, is now as insidious as lice. Thanks to our friends at HBO, the Mafia Minstrel Show has been legitimized as a mainstream genre, not unlike westerns or love stories. So why has the Mafia Minstrel Show survived for the past 70 years? It is very simple, IT MAKES MONEY!!!!! I remember reading the obituary for Mario Puzo. It listed the sales of his books, his wonderful novel about Italian American immigrants, The Fortunate Pilgrim, ha d sold maybe 10,000 copies and The Godfather, a novel that featured the Mafia Minstrel Show, had sold 15 million copies. Mario Puzo, a man who admitted he had never known a gangster before he wrote The Godfather, obviously was given a lot of cash to write a novel about the Mafia Minstrel Show.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Anzia Yezierska’s novel Bread Givers and Assimilation of Jews Essay

Anzia Yezierska’s novel Bread Givers and Assimilation of Jews An entire chapter of Eric Liu’s memoir, The Accidental Asian, is founded on the supposition that Jews today serve as a metaphor for assimilation into American culture. According to Liu, this is due to the ease with which Jews have been able to assimilate. However, the progress that Jews have made in embracing and affecting America has been gradual rather than instantaneous, as evidenced by the character Sara Smolensky in Anzia Yezierska’s novel Bread Givers. Sara is not the symbol of an assimilated Jew, but instead represents a period of transition between complete assimilation into American identity and complete dissimilation from her Jewish and Polish heritage, neither of which she can fully accomplish. Her identity was both â€Å"made† and â€Å"unmade† by her interaction with America, and she is left struggling for a new self that can interweave her ancestral past and her American present. Perhaps the best example of Sara’s deviation from her Jewish heritage and her attempt to assimilate was her refusal to allow the undertaker to tear her suit during her mother’s funeral service. The clothing that she wears is a symbol to her of wealth and of being an American. For Sara the ripping of her clothing had become an â€Å"empty symbol,† a cultural construction with only symbolic meaning that could help to identify her ethnicity, and does not serve any logical purpose. After being distanced from her family and immersed in American culture for so long, she no longer understands the purpose of the action, and posits verily that â€Å"Tearing [her only suit] wouldn’t bring Mother back to life again† (Yezierska 255). This represents a clear distinction between volunta... ...rself in between the two, and in doing so partially â€Å"unmakes† the ethnic identity passed on to her from her ancestors. The question of whether she is more assimilated into American culture or is more dissimilated from the culture of her ancestors is arbitrary and ambiguous. She is simultaneously both and neither; she is a new person who enjoys the American way of life but will always feel burdened by the â€Å"weight† of her ancestors â€Å"upon [her]† (297). Works Cited Liu, Eric. â€Å"New Jews.† The Accidental Asian. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. 145-74. Sollors, Werner. Forward. â€Å"Theories of American Ethnicity.† American Quarterly. 33.3 (1981): 257-83. Takaki, Ronald. â€Å"Between Two Endless Days.† A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1993. 277-310. Yezierska, Anzia. Bread Givers. New York: Persea Books, 2003.

Battle-Piece

Those who are going for picnics stopover here for one hour, fill their stomachs and leave. Hardly ever they make a immediate visit downhill to the camp; they overlook the throb, crack and annoyance in the tightened teeth, rifle, bullets, cap and camp-boys. The shouts of canon, ringing, the tap of drum. In haze, pallid, dirty, smoke-blackened Clem, Austace and Willy-it is futile to identify them by name or even describe every one. Anyhow, it has completed by now.In every winter grandsons and spouses of respectful soldiers put garland, or ornaments of undying artificial flowers. No one labels it lethargic. It is month of August and it is late afternoon, a mix of heat and vapors sparkles over the polished stonework, sun moves through the silky tress of pines borders has been trimmed like short graceful grass. It is distressing to observe that beautiful concrete box turning into fragments. The bombardment of gun shell produces screeches.Twisting splitting of delicate Lielly. Yes here are scraped trails with beautiful tress and cool streams. The cries, you were not able to hear were of doves. Now evening recalls you all; you excited as a neat bubble gum and young boy who stole apples are tasking last sip of their molasses drink as some other’s son who is eager to supply food has finished haying. Note down the startling shock when each of these boys has got sandstone bolsters while hitting the neat border of a scythe.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Attachment and Divorce

extension and decouple FAMILY CONSEQUENCES Bowlbys, Ainsworths, and S get hold ofrs whole step into created the realiseing that sister styles create a appetite for by and by carri hop onal traits. More period question has questi one(a)d the significance of how the disruption of the appendix anatomical structure (such as in break up) can appropriate small fryrens behaviors byout life.The search on this topic is contradictory and somewhat inconclusive, with research assert that either addendum style or external environment has been the master(prenominal) subscriber to the behaviors seen in members of carve upd families, composition legion(predicate) sources stated that it is akinly to be a combination of both influences. With either explanation, research concludes that children of split families deport a disposition to these behaviors, tho the end development of behavior and personality is in the hands of the individual and the external f displaceors tha t ar present. AbstractThe extension speculation that was developed by Har confused, Bowlby, and Ainsworth, which states that chemical trammel net is a key aspect to find personality and behavior throughout an individuals life time. adhesiveness can be defined as the arduous tie that develops first amid p argonnt and child, and later in companion and wild-eyed proportionships (Bowlby, 1969). Research on break up and separation of adhesion figures has yielded conflicting results. It is such(prenominal) reported that children of split vex pettifoggery adapting to antithetical st dates of their lives beca stinting consumption of their experience with broken or detached fond regard bring togethers.These children argon verbalize to go no accurate template for successful relationships to replicate in their lives. some other research provided results that children of disjointment adapt to lifes situations and relationships inside normal ranges when compargond t o their peers (Armistead, Forehand, Summers, & Tannenbaum, 1998). Taking this into account, these researchers looked to peer relations, socioeconomic status, general injury, or poor sustaining skills to rationalise the appearance of troublesome behavior or poor grades.The poll of all aspects of disassociate and fastening is all important(predicate) to how adverts, psychologists, and teachers approach and understand children of disassociate families in order to helper them reach their full potential as gravids. Overview of Attachment Theory The attachment theory has a basis in cardinal theoretical approaches and was first related to primate and infant- grow studies. The ternion approaches include a psychoanalytical approach, the tender learning approach, and the ethological theory of attachment (Ainsworth, 1969).Childhood attachment styles are understandably fannyd on the aflame nonplus between the parent and child, as distant to a biological push to endure attach ed. A theme on adoptive children gives that corroboratively graded attachments heighten the pretend for a well- accommodateed life, regardless of the biological relation of the attachment figure (Juffer, Stams & train IJzendoorn, 2002). Even in a biologically unrelated group of parents and their adopted children from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, early child-parent relationship characteristics play a significant situation in shaping childrens adaptation in affectionateness(a) childishness (Juffer et al. 2002, p. 814). Harlow (1958) experimented with infant rhesus monkeys by removing them from their mothers and offering them a choice between two deputy mothers, one make of terrycloth, the other of telegraph. In the first group, the terrycloth mother provided no bill of fare while the electrify mother did, in the form of an attached baby bottle containing milk. In the second group, the terrycloth mother provided food the wire mother did non. The two-y ear-old monkeys clung to the terrycloth mother regardless it provided them with food, and that the other young monkeys chose the wire surrogate however when it provided food.The monkeys in the terrycloth essay fared better in m any aspects of their lives compared to others who were provided with that a wire mother, and were more likely to be adjusted physically, psychologically, and socially compared to the monkeys raised by the wire mother. Harlow think from his research that the primates are better off in their lives when apt(p) more comfort, attention, and grooming when compared to those who were deprived of these elements (Harlow).Harlow (1958) in addition famous that the infant monkeys formed a c digest bond, or attachment to their surrogate cloth mothers. These surrogate mothers were practically utilize as a pander fanny when opportunities to venture and explore were presented. This was done in order to see how the infants adapted to the surroundings. These infants utilize their emotional bond to ensure that they would non be harmed when encountering spic-and-spanborn objects. Also, when a punishing stimulus was presented in this lab experiment, the monkeys move back to the cloth mothers for safety.This correlates with Ainsworths (1967) finding that infants in Uganda use their mothers as a secure base to explore, occasionally leaving their sights, but periodically rescueing to ensure themselves that they are exempt there. Bowlby (1969) too distributeed research on attachment, recognizing the needed bond between infants and their first-string precaution givers. In a variety of cultures that acquire been studied, the majority of children ranging in age from guild months to one year old constitute exhibited watertight attachment behavior towards their primary care giver.This trend continued until triple to four years of age, where the attachment thinned slightly. Hopefully at this point, the child is secure enough to briefly v enture from the mother, and engender to develop other interactions and attachments (Bowlby). The mental picture that attachment extends throughout the life of an individual is noned in sections of Ainsworths and Bowlbys literature. Bowlby (1969) stated that oer time, the attachment that infants dumbfound for their parents is subtly weakened.The breaker point to which it is weakened depends on the temperament of the child, which in turn de bourneines how readily new-sprung(prenominal) attachment bonds are sought out and formed. Bowlby alike researched the effect that temporary exhalation of the mother had on human infants, and his findings were expanded upon by the development of the Strange shoes function developed by Ainsworth. Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, and Wall (1978) coagulated Bowlbys research on infants and developed three main attachment styles. These styles are ground on Ainsworths (1978) studies of temporary loss of the main attachment figure at heart a control led lab set apartting.This research was called the Strange Situation surgery. The results repointcased the distinct attachment characteristics for each style. Avoidant infants cogitate their attention mainly on toys that are ground around the research room, not directly on the mother. The children appear to be independent and confidant, but there is lettered quashance of the mother figure make outring. erstwhile the mother is removed, these infants become detached and avoid the substitute care sproutr. When returning, the infant continues to avoid the parent (Ainsworth et al. , 1978).Secure infants are genuinely social and explorative within the environment. They are cordial to the mother and caretaker, although can be careful of strangers. Secure infants show signs of anger and somberness when the mother is removed, but ultimately adjust to the absence. These infants are generally excited upon the return of the mother (Ainsworth et al. , 1978). Lastly, the Anxious or uncertain pattern of behavior in infants shows signs of worry and hostility towards the parent. The Ambivalent infant is shows encroachment toward the mother, but longs to be close to her at the same time.This behavior occurs both in the drawning and later on the parent returns to the room (Ainsworth et al. , 1978). choirmaster and S bring onr (1987) continued this line of research and adapted the original attachment styles to patterns of attachment behavior in swelled amative relationships. The same three attachment styles reside true for alteration and behavior in adult relationships (Hazan, & S gor). The securely attached infants grow into adults that were more likely to experience equilibrize relationships of a desirable duration. The Avoidant infants grew up to have a few short relationships, if any at all.Ambivalent infants became adults who had frequent partners, but often to not allow themselves or their partner to establish the close bond that they would like to form. Separation From an Attachment figure Spouse marriage is a super significant form of attachment bond that has proscribe consequences when broken. Bowlby realized and supported the notion that as we grow older, we form new attachments with multiple important figures throughout our lives (Bowlby, 1969). For infants, it is only natural to form attachments with the people who care for them virtually, in regards to their physiological and emotional needs.As people mature, the old attachments are only severed afterward great strain, and new attachments are made along the way. youthful attachments can be friends, co- tempters or romantic interests (Bowlby, 1969). The cause of dissever on the adults who are engulfed in the situation tend to be as disagreeable as those effect in the children. Weiss (1976) work showed that the reaction of couples after divorce is similar to the core set of reactions of other examples where attachment is broken, including the reactions of chi ldren.Kobak (1999) refered to the Weiss study and stateed that the availableness of an attachment figure in relationships is important to the strength of the bond. When this availability is broken, much like an enhanced Strange Situation Procedure for adults, the security of one spouse or the other is threatened. Berman (1988) noticed from his study of disassociate couples, that there is often a strong sense of longing for the estranged partner, and a mourning of the loss is experienced. He in addition noted that there is a evidently illogical mix of anger, resentment, and lingering positive feelings for the estranged spouse.Weiss (1976) explained this by stating This persisting bond to the spouse resembles the attachment bond of children to parents draw by Bowlby. Indeed it seems reasonable to shot that the bond we observe to persist in unhappy marriages is an adult development of childhood attachment (p. 138). Although the distress caused by divorce is great for both partner s, it is easier to see how adults have a go at it with the broken attachment because of their life experiences, maturity, and alternate(a) sources of support. In contrast, children rely mainly on few attachment figures and often miss the coping skills that adults have refined.Children Children usually lose a degree of contact with one of their very few attachment figures when a divorce occurs. It is a confusing and stressful time for children, regardless of whether the divorce was amicable or not. Booth, Clarke-Stewart, McCartney, Owen, & Vandell (2000) refer to various discipline studies when they stated that poor school performance, low self-esteem, behavior problems, distress, and adaptation difficulties are associated with divorce. In adolescents from separate families they noted more instances of creaky behavior, early sex activity, and continued academician issues.In contrast, there have also been comparable studies that detect no eccentric behavior or emotional distr ess occurring from divorce (Armistead et al. , 1998). For example, one study conglomerate extensive questionnaires and concluded that the average gain attained from the children were within normal ranges when compared to children of full families (Armistead et al. ). There are umpteen factors that whitethorn play into how childrens attachments are altered after a divorce, gender and age macrocosm the two most documented variables. Childrens adjustment and the factor of age.The behavioral reaction of a child to divorce has been shown to correlate with the age group when the divorce or separation occurs. In a contr everywheresial study of split families, Blakeslee & Wallerstein (1989) stated that most children have the same initial feelings. When their family breaks up, children feel vulnerable, for they consternation that their lifeline is in danger of existenceness cut (p. 12). They then went on to hash out the age digressions and how the stage at which divorce occurs can impact what behaviors may take place.Blakeslee and Wallerstein (1989) observed, Little children often have obstacle falling asleep at bedtime or sleeping through the night. Older children may have trouble c one timentrating at school. Adolescents often act out and get into trouble. work force and women may become depressed or frenetic. Some throw themselves into sexual personal matters or immerse themselves in work (p. xii). Booth et al. (2000) conducted wide sampling research and realized that the worst initial reactions and behaviors that occur close to the date of the divorce were by the youngest children.In a follow-up study 10 years after the divorce, however, the youngest children were adjusting to their new environments and interactions better than siblings who were older at the time of the divorce. Childrens adjustment and the factor of sex. Gender difference between children in a divorce plays a very important berth in how they adjust. This is true during the time of the divorce and has lasting do in adult life. Multiple studies have agreed that boys and girls react differently to the reduced contact with a major attachment figure.Boys seem to have an especially difficult time with divorce, cause them to have trouble at school, leave out from social interactions, or start fights with peers (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989). However, Amato (2001) wrote a follow up study to his early meta-analysis findings. In this earlier study, behavior traits were stratified in children with divorced parents and observed negative behaviors. The current study emphasizes that differences are not unique to either boys or girls. Amato and Keith (1991) found that the deficit in social adjustment associated with married disruption was greater for boys than for girls.In the 1990s, divorce was associated with greater conduct problems among boys than girls. still the more general conclusionin the earlier meta-analysis as well as in the present oneis that most of the disadvantages associated with divorce are similar for boys and girls. These findings point that the stress on the children is equal, although they may show it in differing ways. Amatos (2001) follow up study also went to great lengths to show that current trends in gender differences are not as severe as they were once thought to be.Children of Divorce Outcomes Short-term forces for children from divorced families seem to be troubled, but the import becomes increasingly optimistic as the children age and mature (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, 1989). The individuals who were interviewed by Wallerstein (1989) showed a strong desire to fix what their parents could not within their own adult lives. They wanted to have stable families and relationships, although legion(predicate) viewed this dream as idealistic, not realistic. They idolise betrayal. They fear abandonment.They fear loss. They draw an inescapable conclusion Relationships have a high likelihood of being untrustworthy betray al and infidelity are probable (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, p. 55). disregarding of the long term effects on these particular interviewees, Amato and Keith (1991) concluded after their own assessment that children of highly conflicted families who are not divorced fare worse over time than children with divorced parents. This shows that distance from an attachment figure may be better than living in a troubled environment.Blakeslee and Wallerstein (1989) observed through their years of interviews with children of divorce an occurrence cognize as the Sleeper gist. It is defined as, a delayed reaction to an event that happened numerous years earlier (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, p. 60). The Sleeper Effect is seen mostly in young women whose parents divorced while they were young children. As previously noted, boys are more likely to act out during the time of divorce, showing their intrusion and anger at the situation (Amato and Keith, 1991). Girls on the other hand, seem to keep this frustration inside.This pent up emotion is theorized to show its effects later in the lives of these girls (Blakeslee & Wallerstein). Its effects are described as, particularly terrible because it occurs at the crucial time when many young women make decisions that have long-term implications for their lives. Suddenly overcome by fears and anxieties, they begin to make connections between these feelings and their parents divorce (Blakeslee & Wallerstein, p. 61). nigh attachment and divorce literature claims attachment is an integral part of the outcomes seen in children from divorced families.However, many of these sources also mention the charge of secondary factors such as income, mothers avocation status, or peer relationships. These factors can also play a key role in determining how a child deals with divorce. For example, Booth et al, (2000) summarized their results and said that during the early stages of life, it is perchance most important that the available parent ha s good parenting skills. This, they say, is more important to the outcome of the child than the family structure, meaning that parenting practices have a greater effect on children than marital status.They mention that privation of education, depression, low income, and incompetent support from the mother leads to poor adjustment and behavior in young children. many other(prenominal) of these factors can be brought on by a divorce, such as lack of support or attention for children, depression, and economic status. The fading stigma of divorce is another universal factor that has been observed to diversity the well being of these children. Contrary to the past, divorce is not viewed as a corrupting occurrence, which once brought social exclusion, shame, and the feeling of stroke to family members.Similarly, the current volume has increased, and current divorces are not preceded by as much violence and anger as in the past (Amato, 2001). Conclusion The somewhat distinguish vie ws provide a solid, yet inconclusive basis for our understanding of how divorce affects families. unlike views have been discussed, including the attachment theory and the effects of family environments. The research has uncovered a wealthiness of knowledge about how adults and children deal with loss and feelings of abandonment and insecurity.There were many uncouth reactions to divorce that have been observed over these situations, including sadness, anger, insecurity, and lack of trust, which can lead to depression, conduct issues, or unrealistic relationship views. Regardless of these common findings, many children of divorce eventually learn to accept the past and look toward their futures. 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